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Critical review of the safety assessment of nano -structured silica additives in food. The development of nano -materials is viewed as one of the most important technological advances of the 21st century and new applications of nano -sized particles in the production, processing, packaging or storage of food are expected to emerge soon. This trend of growing commercialization of engineered nano -particles as part of modern diet will substantially increase oral exposure. Contrary to the proven benefits of nano -materials, however, possible adverse health effects have generally received less attention.

This problem is very well illustrated by nano -structured synthetic amorphous silica SAS , which is a common food additive since several decades although the relevant risk assessment has never been satisfactorily completed. However, extrapolation to a safe daily intake for humans is problematic due to limitations of this chronic animal study and knowledge gaps as to possible local intestinal effects of SAS particles, primarily on the gut-associated lymphoid system.

This uncertainty is aggravated by digestion experiments indicating that dietary SAS particles preserve their nano -sized structure when reaching the intestinal lumen. An important aspect is whether food-borne particles like SAS alter the function of dendritic cells that, embedded in the intestinal mucosa, act as first-line sentinels of foreign materials. We conclude that nano -particles do not represent a completely new threat and that most potential risks can be assessed following procedures established for conventional chemical hazards.

However, specific properties of food-borne nano -particles should be further examined and, for that purpose, in vitro tests with decision-making cells of the immune system are needed to complement existing in vivo studies. Nano -structured silica coated mesoporous carbon micro-granules for potential application in water filtration. A novel nano -composite spherical micro-granule has been synthesized using a facile technique of solvent evaporation induced assembly of nanoparticles for potential application in water filtration.

The spherical micro-granule is comprised of nano -structured shell of hydrophilic silica encapsulating a hydrophobic mesoporous carbon at the core. Hierarchical structure of such core-shell micro-granules has been rigorously characterized using small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering techniques and complemented with scanning electron microscopy. The hydrophilic silica envelope around the carbon core helps in incorporation of such granules into the hydrophilic polymeric ultra-filtration membrane.

The interstitial micro-pores present in the silica shell can serve as water transport channels and the mesoporus carbon core enhances the separation performance due its well adsorption characteristics. It has been found that the incorporation of such granules inside the ultra-filtration membrane indeed enhances the water permeability as well as the separation performance in a significant way.

Synthesis of biocompatible hydrophobic silica -gelatin nano -hybrid by sol-gel process. Silica -biopolymer hybrid has been synthesised using colloidal silica as the precursor for silica and gelatin as the biopolymer counterpart. The surface modification of the hybrid material has been done with methyltrimethoxysilane leading to the formation of biocompatible hydrophobic silica -gelatin hybrid.

Here we are reporting hydrophobic silica -gelatin hybrid and coating precursor for the first time. The hybrid gel has been evaluated for chemical modification, thermal degradation, hydrophobicity, particle size, transparency under the UV-visible region and morphology. The hydrophobic property has also been tailored by varying the concentration of methyltrimethoxysilane. Contact angle by Wilhelmy plate method of transparent hydrophobic silica -gelatin coatings has been found to be as high as approximately 95 degrees.

Oxidation of the organic group which induces the hydrophobic character occurs at degrees C which indicates that the surface hydrophobicity is retained up to that temperature. Synthesis of nano -forsterite powder by making use of natural silica sand. Nurbaiti, Upik, E-mail: upik-nurbaiti mail.

Nano -forsterite powder with natural silica sand and magnesium powder as the raw materials have been succesfully synthesized. The silica sand was purified followed by a coprecipitation process to obtain colloidal silica. The diffraction data were qualitatively analyzed using Match! Results of XRD data analysis showed that the forsterite content reached up to The TEM average crystallite size was approximately 53 6 nm. Morphologic evolution and optical properties of nanostructured gold based on mesoporous silica.

In this paper, we report the morphologic evolution and optical properties of nanostructured gold dispersed in monolithic mesoporous silica induced by soaking the silica into a HAuCl4 aqueous solution and subsequent treatments. It has been shown that the morphology of nanostructured Au depends on the subsequent treatments after soaking.

If the HAuCl4-soaked mesoporous silica was dried at 10h and annealed at silica assembly can be formed. Corresponding optical-absorption spectra exhibit a broad absorption band around nm. The corresponding morphology of the nanostructured Au evolves from the wire, rodlike to a spherical shape.

This means that we can control the optical properties of this assembly in a large region by such a simple way. Further experiments reveal that the pore walls of silica have significant reduction effect on AuCl4- ions at a low temperature silica host and drying at silica assembly and hence to show tunable optical properties by subsequent step annealing. Not a single one of these conditions can be dispensed with.

The formation of the Au nanowires is attributed to the low nucleation rate, unidirectional diffusion of Au atoms along the pore. Organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silicas : functionalization, pore size, and morphology control. Topological design of mesoporous silica materials, pore architecture, pore size, and morphology are currently major issues in areas such as catalytic conversion of bulky molecules, adsorption, host-guest chemistry, etc. In this sense, we discuss the pore size-controlled mesostructure, framework functionalization, and morphology control of organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silicas by which we can improve the applicability of mesoporous materials.

First, we explain that the sizes of hexagonal- and cubic-type pores in organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silicas are well controlled from Second, we describe that organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous materials with various functional groups form various external morphologies such as rod, cauliflower, film, rope, spheroid, monolith, and fiber shapes. Such hybrid mesoporous silica materials are expected to be applied as excellent catalysts for organic reactions, photocatalysis, optical devices, etc.

Therefore, abrasion resistance is one of the most important properties of concern for RCC pavement. In this study, response surface methodology was used to design, evaluate and analyze the effect of partial replacement of fine aggregate with crumb rubber, and addition of nano silica on the abrasion resistance of roller compacted rubbercrete RCR.

RCR is the terminology used for RCC pavement where crumb rubber was used as partial replacement to fine aggregate. The Cantabro loss method was used to measure the abrasion resistance. The results showed that the abrasion resistance of RCR decreases with increase in crumb rubber content, and increases with increase in addition of nano silica. The analysis of variance shows that the model developed using response surface methodology RSM has a very good degree of correlation, and can be used to predict the abrasion resistance of RCR with a percentage error of 5.

The combination of The synthesized photocatalyst composition was developed using nano -TiO 2 as the photoactive component and zeolite ZSM-5 as the adsorbents, all supported on silica gel using colloidal silica gel binder. Its high photocatalytic activity was due to its large specific surface area The SNTZS photocatalyst synthesized in this study also has been proven to have an excellent adhesion and reusability.

A novel liquid template corrosion approach for layered silica with various morphologies and different nanolayer thicknesses. After adding aqueous ammonia the EA becomes hydrolyzed, which results in corrosion of microemulsion droplets. These droplets subsequently act as templates for the synthesis of silica formed by hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate. The morphological evolution of silica can be tuned by varying the concentration of aqueous ammonia which controls the degree of corrosion of the microemulsion droplet templates.

A possible mechanism is proposed to explain why the LTC approach affords layered silica nanostructured materials with various morphologies and nanolayer thickness 2. Our method provides a simple way to fabricate a variety of building blocks for assembling nanomaterials with novel structures and functionality, which are not available using conventional template methods.

This work presents simulation, analysis and implementation of morphology tuning of gold nano -island structures deposited by a novel convective assembly technique. The gold nano -islands were simulated using 3D Finite-Difference Time-Domain FDTD techniques to investigate the effect of morphological changes and adsorption of protein layers on the localized surface plasmon resonance LSPR properties. Gold nano -island structures were deposited on glass substrates by a novel and low-cost convective assembly process.

The structure formed by an uncontrolled deposition method resulted in a nano -cluster morphology , which was annealed at various temperatures to tune the optical absorbance properties by transforming the nano -clusters to a nano -island morphology by modifying the structural shape and interparticle separation distances. The dependence of the size and the interparticle separation distance of the nano -islands on the LSPR properties were analyzed in the simulation.

The effect of adsorption of protein layer on the nano -island structures was simulated and a relation between the thickness and the refractive index of the protein layer on the LSPR peak was presented. Further, the sensitivity of the gold nano -island integrated sensor against refractive index was computed and compared with the experimental results.

Preparation of superhydrophobic and transparent micro- nano hybrid coatings from polymethylhydroxysiloxane and silica ormosil aerogels. The hybrids were spin coated on glass substrate at rpm for 60 seconds and used for further analysis. The surface morphology and chemical compositions of the hybrids were analyzed by high resolution scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force spectroscopy, adsorption and desorption isotherm, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

The transparency, thermal decomposition and static contact angle SCA of each sample were measured by UV-Visible spectrophotometer, TGA and drop shape analysis system, respectively. The spin coated substrates showed good superhydrophobic properties, thermal stability as well as transparency on the glass substrates. Furthermore, simulations are based on coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of aminopolymer composites where a branched aminopolymer, representing poly ethylenimine PEI , is impregnated into different silica mesoporous supports.

Simulations predict that a 3D pore morphology , such as those of KIT-6, MCM, and SBA, will have faster segmental mobility and have lower probability of primary amine and surface silanol associations, which should translate to higher CO 2 uptake in comparison to a 2D pore morphology such as that of SBA Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in As2S3- silica " nano -spike" step-index waveguide.

Efficient generation of a broad-band mid-infrared supercontinuum spectrum is reported in an arsenic trisulphide waveguide embedded in silica. The nano -spike is fully encapsulated in a fused silica cladding, protecting it from the environment.

Nano -spikes provide a convenient means of launching light into sub-wavelength scale waveguides. The spectrum generated will have immediate uses in metrology and infrared spectroscopy. MacLeod, Bruce D. A study of the continuous wave CW laser induced damage threshold LiDT of fused silica and yttrium aluminum garnet YAG optics was conducted to further illustrate the enhanced survivability within high power laser systems of an anti-reflection AR treatment consisting of randomly distributed surface relief nanostructures RAR.

Initial results for accumulated power, stationary site exposures of RAR nano -textured optics showed no damage and low surface temperatures similar to the control optics with no AR treatment. In contrast, optics with thin-film AR coatings showed high surface temperatures consistent with absorption by the film layers. Surface discriminating absorption measurements made using the Photothermal Common-path Interferometry PCI method, showed zero added surface absorption for the RAR nanotextured optics, and absorption levels in the part per million range for thin-film AR coated optics.

In addition, the surface absorption of thin-film AR coatings was also found to have localized absorption spikes that are likely pre-cursors for damage. Significantly, none of the 10 RAR nano -textured fused silica optics tested could be damaged up to the maximum system intensity of YAG optics tested during the final cycle exhibited a similar result with RAR nano -textured surfaces surviving intensities over 3 times higher than thin. Formation and metrology of dual scale nano-morphology on SF 6 plasma etched silicon surfaces.

Surface roughness and nano-morphology in SF 6 plasma etched silicon substrates are investigated in a helicon type plasma reactor as a function of etching time and process parameters. The plasma etched surfaces are analyzed by atomic force microscopy. It is found that dual scale nano -roughness is formatted on the silicon surface comprising an underlying nano -roughness and superimposed nano -mounds. Detailed metrological quantification is proposed for the characterization of dual scale surface morphology.

As etching proceeds, the mounds become higher, fewer and wider, and the underlying nano -roughness also increases. Increase in wafer temperature leads to smoother surfaces with lower, fewer and wider nano -mounds. A mechanism based on the deposition of etch inhibiting particles during the etching process is proposed for the explanation of the experimental behavior.

Fiber Bragg grating filter using evaporated induced self assembly of silica nano particles. In the present work we conduct a study of fiber filters produced by evaporation of silica particles upon a MM-fiber core. A band filter was designed and theoretically verified using a 2D Comsol simulation model of a 3D problem, and calculated in the frequency domain in respect to refractive index. The fiber filters were fabricated by stripping and chemically etching the middle part of an MM-fiber until the core was exposed.

The experimental results indicated a broader bandwidth than indicated by the simulations which can be explained by the mismatch in the particle size distributions, uneven particle packing and finally by effects from multiple mode angles. Thus, there are several closely connected Bragg wavelengths that build up the broader bandwidth. The experimental part shows that it is possible by narrowing the particle size distributing and better control of the particle packing, the filter effectiveness can be greatly improved.

Silica minerals are quite common mineral species in surface environment of the terrestrial planets. They are good indicator of terrestrial processes including hydrothermal alteration, diagenesis and soil formation.

Hydrothermal quartz, metastable low temperature cristobalite and amorphous silica show characteristic morphology and crystallinity depending on their formation processes and kinetics under wide range of temperature, pressure, acidity and thermal history. In this study, silica minerals produced by acidic hydrothermal alteration related to volcanic activities and hydrothermal crystallization experiments from diatom sediment are examined with crystallographic analysis and morphologic observations.

XRD analysis revealed that the alteration degree of whole rock is represented by abundance of cristobalite. Detailed powder XRD analysis show that the primary diffraction peak of cristobalite composed with two or three phases with different d-spacing and FWHM by peak profile fitting analysis. Shorter d-spacing and narrower FWHM cristobalite crystallize from precursor materials with less-crystallized, longer d-spacing and wider FWHM cristobalite.

Textures of hydrothermal cristobalite in altered rock shows remnant of porphylitic texture of the host rock, pyroxene-amphibole andesite. Diatom has amorphous silica shell and makes diatomite sediment. Diatomite found in less diagenetic Quarternary formation keeps amorphous silica diatom shells. Mineral composition of run products shows crystallization of cristobalite and quartz progress depending on temperature and run durations. Initial crystallization product, cristobalite grains occur as characteristic lepispheres and.

Concentration gradient induced morphology evolution of silica nanostructure growth on photoresist-derived carbon micropatterns. The evolution of silica nanostructure morphology induced by local Si vapor source concentration gradient has been investigated by a smart design of experiments. Silica nanostructure or their assemblies with different morphologies are obtained on photoresist-derived three-dimensional carbon microelectrode array.

Both vapor-liquid-solid and vapor-quasiliquid-solid growth mechanisms have been applied to explain the diverse morphologies involving branching, connecting, and batch growth behaviors. The present approach offers a potential method for precise design and controlled synthesis of nanostructures with different features. Pyrolytic carbon membranes containing silica : morphological approach on gas transport behavior. Pyrolytic carbon membrane containing silica C-SiO 2 is a new-class material for gas separation, and in the present work we will deal with it in view of the morphological changes arising from the difference in the molecular structure of the polymeric precursors.

The silica embedded carbon membranes were fabricated by a predetermined pyrolysis step using imide-siloxane copolymers PISs that was synthesized from benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydrides BTDA , 4,4'-oxydianiline ODA , and amine-terminated polydimethylsiloxane PDMS.

To induce different morphologies at the same chemical composition, the copolymers were prepared using one-step preferentially a random segmented copolymer sand two-step polymerization a block segmented copolymer methods. The polymeric precursors and their pyrolytic C-SiO 2 membranes were analyzed using thermal analysis, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, etc. It was found that the C-SiO 2 membrane derived from the random PIS copolymer showed a micro-structure containing small well-dispersed silica domains, whereas the C-SiO 2 membrane from the block PIS copolymer exhibited a micro-structure containing large silica domains in the continuous carbon matrix.

Eventually, the gas transport through these C-SiO 2 membranes was significantly affected by the morphological changes of the polymeric precursors. Structure and morphology evolution of silica -modified pseudoboehmite aerogels during heat treatment. Pakharukova, V. The phase transformations, changes in structure and morphology upon calcination were thoroughly investigated by advanced X-Ray diffraction XRD techniques and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy HRTEM.

Obtained pseudoboehmite samples had specific nanostructure: ultrathin two-dimensional 2D crystallites were loosely packed. The silica dopant drastically enhanced the crystallite anisotropy. Thus, the aerogel with Al:Si atomic ratio of consisted of the pseudoboehmite nanosheets with thickness of one unit cell average dimensions of Direct simulation of XRD patterns with using the Debye Scattering Equation allowed the size and morphology of pseudoboehmite crystallites to be determined.

Thermal stability of alumina was suggested to be affected by the particle morphology inherited from the pseudoboehmite precursor. Atomic force microscopy AFM was used for visualization of a nano -oxidation technique performed on diamond-like carbon DLC thin film. Experiments of the nano -oxidation technique of the DLC thin film include those on nano -oxidation points and nano -oxidation lines.

The feature sizes of the DLC thin film, including surface morphology , depth, and width, were explored after application of a nano -oxidation technique to the DLC thin film under different process parameters. A databank for process parameters and feature sizes of thin films was then established, and multiple regression analysis MRA and a back-propagation neural network BPN were used to carry out the algorithm.

The algorithmic results are compared with the feature sizes acquired from experiments, thus obtaining a prediction model of the nano -oxidation technique of the DLC thin film. When the BPN algorithm is used to predict nano -point machining, the mean absolute percentage errors MAPE of depth, left side, and right side are 8.

When nano -line machining is being predicted, the MAPEs of depth, left side, and right side are 4. The obtained data can also be used to predict cross-sectional morphology in the DLC thin film treated with a nano -oxidation process. Sandblasting and silica -coating of dental alloys: volume loss, morphology and changes in the surface composition. Silica -coating alloys improves chemo-mechanical bonding. Sandblasting is recommended as pretreatment to thermal silica -coating or as part of a tribochemical silica -coating process.

This study evaluated the effects of sandblasting and coating techniques on volume loss, surface morphology and compositional changes in noble AuAgCu and base alloys NiCr and CoCr. Volume loss was statistically significantly higher in the noble as compared to the base alloys but does not seem to be critical for the clinical fit of restorations. Ultrasonic cleaning removed loose alumina or silica particles from the surface, resulting in only slight decreases in alumina or silica contents, thus suggesting firm attachment of the major part of alumina and silica to the alloy surface.

Clinically, ultrasonic cleaning of sandblasted and tribochemically silica -coated alloys might improve resin bonding as loose surface particles are removed without relevant changes in composition. Silica content following thermal silica -coating treatment increased only slightly from the sandblasted specimen. The silica layer employed by these silica -coating methods differs widely in both morphology and thickness. These results provide a basis for explanation of adhesive failure modes in bond strength tests which will possibly optimize resin bonding.

Further research is needed to characterize the outermost surface layers after these treatments and the exact location of adhesive failures. To investigate the feasibility of using sol gel technique to produce thin layer nano silicon dioxide on zirconia ceramic surface and the effect of improving shear bond strength between zirconia and veneer porcelain. Four different treatments were used in each group respectively. Cylinder veneers 5 mm in diameter and 4 mm in height were produced in each group and the shear bond strength was tested.

Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS The shear bond strength of the 5 group specimens were: Significant differences existed between the 5 groups, and group C had significant difference compared with group B and D. The specific nanostructure caused remarkable features of experimental XRD patterns, including anisotropic peak broadening and appearance of forbidden reflection. Ashokkumar, S. Effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone on mesoporous silica morphology and esterification of lauric acid with 1-butanol catalyzed by immobilized enzyme.

Mesoporous silica materials with a range of morphology evolution, i. The effects of PVP molecular weight and concentration on mesoporous silica structure parameters were studied. Results showed that surface area and pore volume continuously decreased with increased PVP molecular weight.

The mechanism of morphology evolution caused by the change in PVP concentration was investigated. The conversion rate of lauric acid with 1-butanol catalyzed by immobilized Porcine pancreatic lipase PPL was also evaluated. In this study, Nano -composites have been synthesized in which PMMA is the matrix material and calcium carbonate nanoparticles as the filler by In-situ polymerization reaction.

The Nano -composites were prepared at three distinct stirring speeds , , rpm in order to observe the property with respect to stirring speeds. The mechanical property is increasing with the stirring speed and concentration. Sandblasting and silica coating of a glass-infiltrated alumina ceramic: volume loss, morphology , and changes in the surface composition. Silica coating can improve bonding of resin to glass-infiltrated aluminum oxide ceramic In-Ceram , and sandblasting is a pretreatment to thermal silica coating Silicoater MD system or a tribochemical coating process Rocatec system.

This study evaluated the effects of sandblasting and coating techniques on volume loss, surface morphology , and surface composition of In-Ceram ceramic. Volume loss through sandblasting was 36 times less for In-Ceram ceramic compared with a feldspathic glass ceramic IPS-Empress , and sandblasting of In-Ceram ceramic did not change its surface composition.

After tribochemical coating with the Rocatec system, a layer of small silica particles remained that elevated the silica content to Ultrasonic cleaning removed loose silica particles from the surface and decreased the silica content to After treatment with the Silicoater MD system, the silica content increased only slightly from that of the sandblasted specimen.

The silica layer created by these systems differs greatly in both morphology and thickness, which could result in different bond strengths. Sandblasting of all ceramic clinical restorations with feldspathic glass materials should be avoided, but for In-Ceram ceramic the volume loss was within an acceptable range and similar to that of noble metals.

Composites of poly ethylenimine PEI and mesoporous silica are effective, reversible adsorbents for CO 2, both from flue gas and in direct air-capture applications. The morphology of the PEI within the silica can strongly impact the overall carbon capture efficiency and rate of saturation.

Here, we directly probe the spatial distribution of the supported polymer through small-angle neutron scattering SANS. Combined with textural characterization from physisorption analysis, the data indicate that PEI first forms a thin conformal coating on the pore walls, but all additional polymer aggregates into plug s that grow along the pore axis.

In conclusion, we illustrate this design principle by demonstrating higher CO 2 capacity and uptake rate for PEI supported in a hydrophobically modified silica , which exhibits repulsive interactions with the PEI, freeing up binding sites. Nano sized ZnS particles were synthesized by a simple wet chemical route.

The formation of these complexes affects the optical and thermal properties of the composite. The changes in optical properties were studied using UV-Vis absorption method. The variation in thermal property was analysed using TGA results. Morphology of self assembled monolayers using liquid phase reaction on silica and their effect on the morphology of adsorbed insulin.

The effect of roughness of two different categories of self-assembled monolayers SAMs with propyl amine and propyl groups respectively on the morphology of adsorbed insulin is observed. The influence of the morphology and physical characteristics of the SAMs on the reaction time and concentration of the modifiers are explored.

We have tested three SCA containing propyl amine with varying groups linked to Si present on it. In addition, we have used a silane coupling agent to prepare SAM of methyl head group. The approach of these molecules towards the surface depends on the head group and the groups linked to Si of the SCA. The morphology of the surfaces is analysed using power spectral density distribution PSD , skewness, ellipsometry thickness and surface energy.

Both chemical nature and physical morphology of the adsorbent influence the morphology of the adsorbed insulin. The peak to valley ratio of the aggregates of insulin is strongly influenced by the size of grains of SCA over the adsorbent. We report a kinetically-controlled template-free room-temperature production of hollow silica materials with various novel morphologies , including tubes, crutches, ribbons, bundles and bells. The obtained products, which grew in a well-controlled manner, were monodispersed in shape and size.

The role of ammonia, sodium citrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, chloroauric acid and NaCl in shape control is discussed in detail. The evolution processes of silica rods, tubes, crutches, bundles and bells were recorded using transmission electron microscopy to prove the SSS mechanism.

Morphology studies of hydrophobic silica on filter surface prepared via spray technique. This study investigated the effect of the hydrophobic surface treatment effect of air filter performance by using silica aerogel powder as an additive by using spray coating techniques. The membrane characterization tests were carried out on a filter prepared from different additive concentration.

Studies on the cross-section and the distribution of particles on the membrane were carried out using a scanning electron microscope SEM , and the surface morphology was investigated by x-ray spectroscopy EDS. The results are shown by SEM and EDS that the microstructure filter, especially in the upper layer and sub-layer has been changed. The results also show an increase of hydrophobicity due to the increased quantity of silica aerogel powder. Chromium doped nano -phase separated yttria-alumina- silica glass based optical fiber preform: fabrication and characterization.

Transition metal TM doping in silica core optical fiber is one of the research area which has been studied for long time and Chromium Cr doping specially attracts a lot of research interest due to their broad emission band covering U, C and L band with many potential application such as saturable absorber or broadband amplifier etc. This paper present fabrication of Cr doped nano -phase separated silica fiber within yttria-alumina- silica core glass through conventional Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition MCVD process coupled with solution doping technique along with different material and optical characterization.

We also report that optimized annealing condition of our fabricated preform exhibited enhanced fluorescence emission and a broad band within nm wavelength region under pumping at nm wavelength due to nano -phase restructuration. Effect of addition of different nano -clays on the fumed silica -polyethylene glycol based shear-thickening fluids. The objective was to study the effect of relatively cost-effective clays as a partial substitute of silica. Specifically, the effect of type, concentration, temperature and frequency were considered.

The elasticity effects in dynamic experiments were markedly enhanced by Halloysite clay addition. Addition of MMT, however, led to insignificant enhancement in critical viscosity in steady-state as well as dynamic state-rheology. Near infrared spectra combined with partial least squares were proposed as a means of non-contact analysis of the adsorptive ink capacity of recording coating materials in ink jet printing.

First, the recording coating materials were prepared based on nano silica pigments. The influence of factors such as recording coating thickness, mass ratio silica : binder-polyvinyl alcohol and the solution concentration on the adsorptive ink capacity were studied.

With the help of the near infrared spectra, the adsorptive ink capacity of a recording coating material can be rapidly controlled. Non-contact analysis of the adsorptive ink capacity of nano silica pigments on a printing coating base. Resolving the morphology of niobium carbonitride nano -precipitates in steel using atom probe tomography.

Atom probe is a powerful technique for studying the composition of nano -precipitates, but their morphology within the reconstructed data is distorted due to the so-called local magnification effect. A new technique has been developed to mitigate this limitation by characterizing the distribution of the surrounding matrix atoms, rather than those contained within the nano -precipitates themselves.

A comprehensive chemical analysis enables further information on size and chemistry to be obtained. The method enables new insight into the morphology and chemistry of niobium carbonitride nano -precipitates within ferrite for a series of Nb-microalloyed ultra-thin cast strip steels.

The results are supported by complementary high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Morphology and thermal stability of nano titanium dioxide filled natural rubber prepared by latex mixing method. This paper deals with the morphology and thermal stability of nano Titanium Dioxide TiO2 filled natural rubber composites. This study also suggests a new method of incorporating TiO2. Aqueous dispersions of nano TiO2at the loadings of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 phr were dispersed in natural rubber latex, the resulting compounds were then dried prior to mixing it with other ingredients on a two-roll mill.

By applying this technique, the homogeneity of the compound is significantly improved. This can be clearly seen from the morphology observed. Adding TiO2 results in shifting the decomposition temperature and char residue irrespective of the loadings of nano TiO2.

The size prediction of potential inclusions embedded in the sub-surface of fused silica by damage morphology. A model for predicting the size ranges of different potential inclusions initiating damage on the surface of fused silica has been presented. This accounts for the heating of nanometric inclusions whose absorptivity is described based on Mie Theory.

By the measured temporal pulse profile on the surface of fused silica , the temperature and thermal stress has been calculated. Furthermore, considering the limit conditions of temperature and thermal stress strength for different damage morphologies , the size range of potential inclusions for fused silica is discussed.

To establish the research model of ovarian carcinoma in nude mice, and to explore the effect of Paris Phyllin VII combined with silica nano complex on the inhibition and the antioxidant ability of ovarian carcinoma in nude mice. Treating the nude mice with Paris Phyllin VII combined with silica nano complex by gavage for 15 days to observe the weight change of the nude mice, tumor inhibition effect and changes of serum antioxidant capacity.

Compared with the negative control group, tumor inhibition rate increased significantly in Paris Phyllin VII combined with silica nano complex treatment group, and was higher than that in both Paris Phyllin VII treatment only and silica nano composites treatment only group. The serum malonaldehyde MDA level of Paris Phyllin VII combined with silica nano complex treatment group was significantly lower than that of the negative control group. Paris Phyllin VII combined with silica nano complex treatment can inhibit the ovarian carcinoma in nude mice, which may mediate by the enhancement of antioxidant capability in nude mice with ovarian cancer.

The effect of nano-silica fertilizer concentration and rice hull ash doses on soybean Glycine max L. Merrill growth and yield. Agriculture is facing a number of challenges included limited water supply, low nutrient use efficiency, etc affected by climate change. Nano-silica is a product of nanotechnology, the frontier technologies to enhance crop productivity under climate change threats.

The purpose of the research was to investigate the effects of nano silica concentration and rice hull ash on growth and yield of soybean. The treatments were arranged by using factorial completely randomized block design with two factors.

The first factor was a concentration of nano silica fertilizer consisted of four levels i. The second factor was doses of rice hull ash consisted of four levels i. Each treatment combinations was repeated three times. The result showed that concentration of nano silica individually affected the number of leaves and number of branches, NAR and RGR, productive branches at 21, , and 35 daps, respectively.

There was an interaction effect between nano-silica concentration and doses of rice hull ash on number pods. Combinations of 2. Nano -amylose-2,3-bis 3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate - silica hybrid sol immobilized on open tubular capillary column for capillary electrochromatography enantioseparation. The chiral organic-inorganic hybrid materials can exhibit a high loading, and the chiral selector nanoparticles can create efficient stationary phases for open-tubular capillary electrochromatography OT-CEC.

Hence, a novel protocol for the preparation of an OT column coated with nano -amylose-2,3-bis 3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate nano-ABDMPC -silica hybrid sol through in situ layer-by-layer self-assembly method was developed for CEC enantioseparation. By controlling the assembly cycle number of nano-ABDMPC-silica hybrid sol, a homogeneous, dense and stable coating was successfully prepared, which was confirmed by SEM and elemental analysis. As the main parameter influencing the chiral separating effect, the nano -ABDMPC bearing 3- triethoxysilyl propyl residues concentration was investigated.

The experimental results showed that Additionally, the coated OT column revealed adequate repeatability concerning run-to-run, day-to-day and column-to-column. KGaA, Weinheim. Secondary nuclear targeting of mesoporous silica nano -particles for cancer-specific drug delivery based on charge inversion.

A novel multifunctional nano -drug delivery system based on reversal of peptide charge was successfully developed for anticancer drug delivery and imaging. Citraconic anhydride Cit was used to invert the charge of the TAT peptide in neutral or weak alkaline conditions so that the positively charged YSA peptide could combine with the TAT peptide through electrostatic attraction. However, the Cit-amino bond was unstable in the acidic atmosphere, so the positive charge of the TAT peptide was restored and the positively charged YSA moiety was repelled.

This nano -drug delivery system was stable at physiological pH, rapidly released the drug in acidic buffer, and was easily taken up by MCF-7 cells. Compared with free doxorubicin hydrochloride at an equal concentration, this modified MSN loaded with doxorubicin molecules had an equivalent inhibitory effect on MCF-7 cells.

This nano -drug delivery system is thus a promising method for simultaneous cancer diagnosis and therapy. Novel polyoxometalate silica nano -sized spheres: efficient catalysts for olefin oxidation and the deep desulfurization process. A novel method to prepare silica nano -sized particles incorporating polyoxometalates was developed leading to a new efficient heterogeneous oxidative catalyst. Zinc-substituted polyoxotungstate [PW11Zn H2O O39] 5- PW11Zn was encapsulated into silica nanoparticles using a cross-linked organic-inorganic core, performed through successive spontaneous reactions in water.

The new composite has shown to be a versatile catalyst for the oxidation of olefins and also to catalyze the desulfurization of a model oil using H2O2 as the oxidant and acetonitrile as the solvent. The novel composite material was capable of being recycled without significant loss of activity and maintaining its structural stability for consecutive desulfurization and olefin oxidative cycles. Effect of resin infiltration on the thermal and mechanical properties of nano -sized silica -based thermal insulation.

Several kinds of nano -sized silica -based thermal insulation were prepared by dry processing of mixtures consisting of fumed silica , ceramic fiber, and a SiC opacifier. Infiltration of phenolic resin solution into the insulation, followed by hot-pressing, was attempted to improve the mechanical strength of the insulation. The structural integrity of the resin-infiltrated samples could be maintained, even after resin burn-out, presumably due to reinforcement from ceramic fibers.

For all temperature ranges and similar sample bulk density values, the thermal conductivities of the samples after resin burn-out were consistently higher than those of the samples obtained from the dry process. Mercury intrusion curves indicated that the median size of the nanopores formed by primary silica aggregates in the samples after resin burn-out is consistently larger than that of the sample without resin infiltration. Assessment of angiogenesis in osseointegration of a silica -collagen biomaterial using 3D- nano -CT.

Bony integration of biomaterials is a complex process in which angiogenesis plays a crucial role. We evaluated micro- and nano -CT imaging to demonstrate and quantify neovascularization in bony integration of a biomaterial and to give an image based estimation for the needed resolution for imaging angiogenesis in an animal model of femora defect healing.

In 8 rats 5mm full-size defects were created at the left femur that was filled with silica -collagen bone substitute material and internally fixed with plate osteosynthesis. Using those 3D images, the newly formed blood vessels in the area of the biomaterial were assessed and the total vascular volume fraction, the volume of the bone substitute material and the volume of the bone defect were quantitatively characterized.

Results were complemented by histology. High-resolution nano -CT demonstrated new blood vessel formation surrounding the biomaterial in all animals at capillary level. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the newly formed blood vessels surrounding the bone substitute material. The mean vascular volume fraction VVF around the implant was calculated to be 3.

Nano -CT imaging is feasible for quantitative analysis of angiogenesis during bony integration of biomaterials and a promising tool in this context for the future. Immunohistochemical characterization of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite silica gel Nano Bone r osteogenesis: a study on biopsies from human jaws. Bone substitute biomaterials may be osteogenic, osteoconductive or osteoinductive. To test for these probable characteristics in a new nanoporous grafting material consisting of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite embedded in a porous silica gel matrix Nano Bone s , applied in humans, we studied biopsies from 12 patients before dental implantation following various orofacial augmentation techniques with healing times of between 3.

Sections from decalcified specimens were investigated using histology, histochemistry [periodic acid Schiff, alcian blue staining and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase TRAP ] and immunohistochemistry, with markers for osteogenesis, bone remodelling, resorption and vessel walls alkaline phosphatase, bone morphogenetic protein-2, collagen type I, ED1, osteocalcin, osteopontin, runx2 and Von-Willebrand factor.

Histologically, four specific stages of graft transformation into lamellar bone could be characterized. During early stages of healing, bone matrix proteins were absorbed by Nano Bone s granules, forming a proteinaceous matrix, which was invaded by small vessels and cells. We assume that the deposition of these molecules promotes early osteogenesis in and around Nano Bone s and supports the concomitant degradation probably by osteoclast-like cells.

TRAP-positive osteoclast-like cells were localized directly on the granular surfaces. Runx2-immunoreactive pre-osteoblasts, which are probably involved in direct osteogenesis forming woven bone that is later transformed into lamellar bone, were attracted.

Graft resorption and bone apposition around the graft granules appear concomitantly. We postulate that Nano Bone s has osteoconductive and biomimetic properties and is integrated into the host's physiological bone turnover at a very early stage. Morphology effect of nano -hydroxyapatite as a drug carrier of methotrexate. In this study, morphology effect of nano -hydroxyapatite as a drug carrier was investigated for the first time. SEM, TEM, XRD and FTIR results confirmed that the hybrids of different morphologies laminated, rod-like and spherical with similar phase composition and functional groups were obtained by changing the preparation parameters.

UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to identify the drug loading capacity and drug release mechanism of the three hybrids with different morphologies. It is concluded that the laminated hybrid exhibits a higher drug loading capacity compared to the other two hybrids, and all the three hybrids showed a sustained slow release which were fitted well by Bhaskar equation.

Additionally, the result of in vitro bioassay test confirms that the inhibition efficacy of the three hybrids showed a positive correlation to the drug loading capacity. Thus, DOX and the linker act as pH-sensitive gatekeeper. The system is versatile and easy to assemble, not requiring the chemical modification of the drugs. While at physiological conditions the release of the drugs is negligible, at acidic pH a burst release of DOX and a gradual release of CPT take place.

The research of new molecular materials able to replace classical solid materials in electronics has attracted growing attention over the past decade. Among these compounds photoswitchable Prussian blue analogues PBA are particularly interesting for the elaboration of new optical memories. However these coordination polymers are generally synthesised as insoluble powders that cannot be integrated into a real device.

Hence their successful integration into real applications depends on an additional processing step. Nanostructured oxides elaborated by sol-gel chemistry combined with surfactant micelle templating can be used as nanoreactors to confine PBA precipitation and organize the functional nano -objects in the three dimensions of space.

Our synthetic procedure fully controls the synthesis of PBA in the porosity of the silica matrix from the insertion of the precursors up to the formation of the photomagnetic compound. We present results on systems from the simplest to the most elaborate: from disordered xerogels to ordered nanostructured films passing through mesoporous monoliths. For MWCNTs on silica , after 3 s irradiation, nanoscale welding with good quality can be achieved due to breaking C-C bonds and formation of new graphene layers.

While welding junctions can be formed until 10 s for the MWCNTs on silicon, the difference of irradiation time to achieve welding is attributed to the difference of thermal conductivity for silica and silicon. As the irradiation time is prolonged up to This is because the accumulation of absorbed energy makes the temperature rise. Then chemical reactions among silicon, carbon and nitrogen occur. There are vibration modes of SiC at peaks of cm -1 , cm -1 and cm For MWCNTs on silica , after 3 s irradiation, nanoscale welding with good quality can be achieved due to breaking C—C bonds and formation of new graphene layers.

The experimental observation proves chemical reactions and the formation of Si3N4 and SiC by laser irradiation. To investigate the effect of silica coating by sol-gel process on bonding strength of zirconia ceramics to dentin.

Blocks of sintered zirconia ceramics were cut and randomly divided into 4 groups,16 slices in each group. After preservation in 37 degrees centigrade distilled water for 24 hours, the shear bonding strength of these specimens was tested and the data was analyzed with SAS6. The surface modality of the ceramics was observed under scanning electron microscopy SEM. Silica coating by sol-gel process, coupled with silicone, can significantly increase the bonding strength of zirconia ceramics to dentin.

Effect of morphology and solvent on two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide. Experimental results show that the zinc oxide nanospheres exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than the zinc oxide triangular nanostructures. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than that of its dispersion in 2-propanol. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water shows a decrease in two-photon absorption coefficient with an increase in on-axis irradiance.

The result confirms the dependence of shape and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide. Nano -scale observations of interface between lichen and basaltic rock: Pseudomorphic growth of amorphous silica on augite.

Recently, lichens as the earliest colonizers of terrestrial habitats are recognized to accelerate the mineral degradation at the interface between lichens and surface rocks. Much interest has been therefore devoted in recent years to the weathering induced by the lichen colonization. Some samples of basaltic rocks totally covered by lichens were collected from the lava flows on the northwest part of Izu-Oshima volcano, Japan.

To prepare specimens for the nano -scale observation, we utilized the focused ion beam FIB system. The microstructure and local chemistry of the specimens were thoroughly investigated by TEM equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy EDX. Chemical components and chemical heterogeneity at the interface were observed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy STXM at Advanced Light Source branch line 5.

The lichens adhering to the rocks were mainly Stereocaulon vesuvianum, fruticose lichen, which are widespread over the study area. The metabolites of the Stereocaulon vesuvianum exhibited a mean pH of 4. Taking into consideration that the S. Nano -islands integrated evanescence-based lab-on-a-chip on silica -on-silicon and polydimethylsiloxane hybrid platform for detection of recombinant growth hormone.

Integration of nano -materials in optical microfluidic devices facilitates the realization of miniaturized analytical systems with enhanced sensing abilities for biological and chemical substances. In this work, a novel method of integration of gold nano -islands in a silica -on-silicon-polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic device is reported. The device works based on the nano -enhanced evanescence technique achieved by interacting the evanescent tail of propagating wave with the gold nano -islands integrated on the core of the waveguide resulting in the modification of the propagating UV-visible spectrum.

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Nano filter from sintered rice husk silica membrane. A nano filter showing the Knudsen flow was demonstrated by a modification of a membrane constructed from rice husk silica. The membrane was prepared by pressing and sintering micron sized rice husk silica with 4 nm pores.

The membrane showed a permeability of 5. When the membrane was treated by filtration of approximately nm sized rice husk silica particles, the permeability decreased to 4. In the case of the membrane after treatments with the dispersion and chemical deposition of tetraethylorthosilicate TEOS , the corresponding permeability and ratios of the membrane were 1.

From the change of the ratio of gas permeability for the membrane with modifications, it is suggested that approximately nm sized rice husk silica particles pack the large pores among the micron sized rice husk silica particles while the chemical deposition of tetraethylorthosilicate TEOS reveals the gas flow through 4 nm pores in the rice husk silica by blocking large pores.

Silica nanoparticles was in-situ grown on the surface of halloysite nanotubes HNTs by a facile one-step approach to prepare a unique nano -structured hybrid HNTs-g- Silica. The structure, morphology and composition of HNTs-g- Silica were investigated. It was confirmed that silica nanoparticles with the diameter of nm were chemically grafted through Sisbnd O bonds and uniformly dispersed onto the surface of HNTs, leading to the formation of nano -protrusions on the nanotube surface.

Based on the unique hybrid architecture and the improved properties of UPE nanocomposites, it is envisioned that HNTs-g- Silica may be a promising filler for more high performance and functional polymers composites and the fabrication method may have implications in the synthesis of nano hybrid materials.

Effect of catalyst concentration on size, morphology and optical properties of silica nanoparticles. Today, nanomaterials play a key role in various fields such as electronics, aerospace, pharmaceuticals and biomedical because of their unique physical, chemical and biological properties which are different from bulk materials.

Nano sized silica particles have gained the prominent position in scientific research and have wide applications. The sol-gel method is the best method to synthesize silica nanoparticles because of its potential to produce monodispersed with narrow size distribution at mild conditions. The silica nanoparticles were obtained by hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate TEOS in ethanol act as solvent. The optical properties and band structure was analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy which is found to be increase by reducing the size of particles.

Concentration effect of catalyst on the size, morphology and optical properties were analyzed. The main principles and methods of synthesis of hollow structures with inorganic nanomaterials are described. Synthesis of hollow spherical silica particles was based on hydrolysis of Si CH3 2Cl2 and SiCl4 in nonpolar solvents at a surface of aerosol drops.

To synthesise hollow magnetite nano - and microparticles with magnetite, saturated solution of iron chlorides in acetone was used. Phase and element composition, morphology and structure of samples were studied using XRD, Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning electron and atom force microscopies.

A nano -bio interfacial protein corona on silica nanoparticle. Nano -bio interaction takes the crucial role in bio-application of nanoparticles. The systematic mapping of interfacial proteins remains the big challenge as low level of proteins within interface regions and lack of appropriate technology. Here, a facile proteomic strategy was developed to characterize the interfacial protein corona noted as IPC that has strong interactions with silica nanoparticle, via the combination of the vigorous elution with high concentration sodium dodecyl sulfate SDS and the pre-isolation of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis SDS-PAGE.

The trace level IPCs for silica nanoparticle were thus qualitatively and quantitatively identified. Bioinformatics analyses revealed the intrinsic compositions, relevance and potential regularity addressing the strong interactions between IPC and nanoparticle. This strategy in determining IPCs is opening an avenue to give a deep insight to understand the interaction between proteins and not only nanoparticles but also other bulk materials.

All rights reserved. Rice husk can be categorized as an organic waste material from paddy industries. Silica is a major inorganic element of the rice husk. The aim of present study is to evaluate the effect of Nano silica on the physical properties of porous concrete pavement.

Five types of mixes were prepared to evaluate the different Nano silica grinding time. The physical properties were examined through compressive strength, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray fluorescence. The experimental results indicate that the different Nano size gives a different effect to porous concrete strength. Based on the results obtained, Nano silica ground for 63 hours PubMed Central. The longevity of grouting has a significant effect on the safe and sustainable operation of many engineering projects.

A day experiment was carried out to study the long-term mechanical behavior of nano silica sol grouting. The nano silica sol was activated with different proportions of a NaCl catalyst and cured under fluctuating temperature and humidity conditions. The mechanical parameters of the grout samples were tested using an electrohydraulic uniaxial compression tester and an improved Vicat instrument.

Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and ultrasonic velocity tests were carried out to analyze the strength change micro-mechanism. Tests showed that as the catalyst dosage in the grout mix is decreased, the curves on the graphs showing changes in the weight and geometric parameters of the samples over time could be divided into three stages, a shrinkage stage, a stable stage, and a second shrinkage stage.

The catalyst improved the stability of the samples and reduced moisture loss. Temperature rise was also a driving force for moisture loss. Uniaxial compressive stress-strain curves for all of the samples were elastoplastic. The curves for uniaxial compression strength and secant modulus plotted against time could be divided into three stages. Sample brittleness increased with time and the brittleness index increased with higher catalyst dosages in the latter part of the curing time.

Plastic strength-time curves exhibit allometric scaling. Curing conditions mainly affect the compactness, and then affect the strength. Presence of nano -sized silica during in vitro digestion of foods containing silica as a food additive. The presence, dissolution, agglomeration state, and release of materials in the nano -size range from food containing engineered nanoparticles during human digestion is a key question for the safety assessment of these materials.

We used an in vitro model to mimic the human digestion. Food products subjected to in vitro digestion included i hot water, ii coffee with powdered creamer, iii instant soup, and iv pancake which either contained silica as the food additive E, or to which a form of synthetic amorphous silica or 32 nm SiO 2 particles were added.

The results showed that, in the mouth stage of the digestion, nano -sized silica particles with a size range of and nm were present in food products containing E or added synthetic amorphous silica. However, during the successive gastric digestion stage, this nano -sized silica was no longer present for the food matrices coffee and instant soup, while low amounts were found for pancakes.

Additional experiments showed that the absence of nano -sized silica in the gastric stage can be contributed to an effect of low pH combined with high electrolyte concentrations in the gastric digestion stage. Importantly, in the subsequent intestinal digestion stage, the nano -sized silica particles reappeared again, even in amounts higher than in the saliva mouth digestion stage. These findings suggest that, upon consumption of foods containing E, the gut epithelium is most likely exposed to nano -sized silica.

Peculiarities of hydration of Portland cement with synthetic nano-silica. Application of nano -materials in cement products significantly, improves their properties. Of course, the effectiveness of the materials depends on their quantity and the way they are introduced into the system. So far, amongst nano -materials used in construction, the most preferred was nano-silica. This research investigated the effect of synthetic precipitated nano-silica on the cement hydration as well as, on the physical and mechanical properties of pastes and mortars.

Obtained results showed that admixture of nano-silica enhanced flexural and compressive strength of cement after 2 and 28 days, however, only when admixture made up 0. Development and characterization of sugarcane bagasse fiber and nano-silica reinforced epoxy hybrid composites.

This paper presents an experimental study on the mechanical performance of sugarcane bagasse fiber reinforced epoxy composite. Tensile and flexural properties of the composites were investigated in this research. Different weightage of short fiber and fiber particulates were utilized to study their effects on the mechanical performance of the composites in terms of tensile and flexural properties. Hand lay-up composite molding process was used to fabricate the composite samples. During fabrication, ultrasonic mixing was carried out to study the effects on mechanical performance of the fiber particulate reinforced composites.

In overall, ultrasonic mixing and addition of nano-silica particles has improved the mechanical performance of the fiber particulate composites. Morphology analysis on surface of composites has shown the removal of air bubbles and deagglomeration. This article reports that nano-silica solid dispersion technology was used to raise genistein efficiency through increasing the enzymatic hydrolysis rate. Firstly, genistin- nano-silica solid dispersion was prepared by solvent method.

And differential scanning calorimetry DSC and transmission electron microscopy TEM were used to verify the formation of solid dispersion, then enzymatic hydrolysis of solid dispersion was done by snailase to get genistein. With the conversion of genistein as criteria, single factor experiments were used to study the different factors affecting enzymatic hydrolysis of genistin and its solid dispersion.

And then, response surface method was used to optimize of nano-silica solid dispersion technology assistant enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimum condition to get genistein through enzymatic hydrolysis of genistin- nano-silica solid dispersion was pH 7. Under this condition, the conversion of genistein was Comparing with that without forming the genistin- nano-silica solid dispersion, the conversion increased 2. At the same time, the product of hydrolysis was purified to get pure genistein.

The method of enzymatic hydrolysis of genistin- nano-silica solid dispersion by snailase to obtain genistein is simple, efficiency and suitable for the modern scale production. Development of construction materials using nano-silica and aggregates recycled from construction and demolition waste.

The present work addresses the development of novel construction materials utilising commercial grade nano-silica and recycled aggregates retrieved from construction and demolition waste. For this, experimental work has been carried out to examine the influence of nano-silica and recycled aggregates on compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, water absorption, density and volume of voids of concrete.

Fully natural and recycled aggregate concrete mixes are designed by replacing cement with three levels 0. The results of the present investigation depict that improvement in early days compressive strength is achieved with the incorporation of nano-silica in addition to the restoration of reduction in compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete mixes caused owing to the replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates.

Moreover, the increase in water absorption and volume of voids with a reduction of bulk density was detected with the incorporation of recycled aggregates in place of natural aggregates. However, enhancement in density and reduction in water absorption and volume of voids of recycled aggregate concrete resulted from the addition of nano-silica. In addition, the results of the study reveal that nano-silica has no significant effect on elastic modulus of concrete.

Probabilistic modeling of the flows and environmental risks of nano-silica. Nano-silica , the engineered nanomaterial with one of the largest production volumes, has a wide range of applications in consumer products and industry. This study aimed to quantify the exposure of nano-silica to the environment and to assess its risk to surface waters. Concentrations were calculated for four environmental air, soil, surface water, sediments and two technical compartments wastewater, solid waste for the EU and Switzerland using probabilistic material flow modeling.

The corresponding median concentration in surface water is predicted to be 0. The concentrations in sediments in the complete sedimentation scenario were found to be the largest among all environmental compartments, with a median annual increase of 0.

Moreover, probabilistic species sensitivity distributions PSSD were computed and the risk of nano-silica in surface waters was quantified by comparing the predicted environmental concentration PEC with the predicted no-effect concentration PNEC distribution, which was derived from the cumulative PSSD. This assessment suggests that nano-silica currently poses no risk to aquatic organisms in surface waters. Further investigations are needed to assess the risk of nano-silica in other environmental compartments, which is currently not possible due to a lack of ecotoxicological data.

To improve the compatibility between the organic and inorganic phases, a coupling agent was used to modify the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A DGEBA epoxy. The low reaction rate of epoxy in the nanocomposites is caused by the steric hindrance in the network of hybrids that arises from the consuming of epoxide group in the network of hybrids by the silica. In the nanocomposites, the nano -scale silica particles had an average size of approximately 35 nm, and the particles were well dispersed in the epoxy matrix, according to the TEM images.

Use of polypropylene fibers coated with nano-silica particles into a cementitious mortar. Fiber reinforced cementitious composite FRCC materials have been widely used during last decades in order to overcome some of traditional cementitious materials issues: brittle behaviour, fire resistance, cover spalling, impact strength. In this study, in order to improve fiber to matrix adhesion, two chemical treatments of polypropylene fibers were investigated: alkaline hydrolysis and nano-silica sol-gel particles deposition.

Treatmtents effect on fibers morphology and mechanical properties was investigated by scanning electron microscopy SEM and tensile tests. Both treatments have negligible influence on fibers mechanical properties confirming the possibility of their use in a cementitious mortar. A general increase of flexural strength over the reference mix was achieved and an overall better behaviour is recognizable for mortars containing treated fibers. Study on the repeatability of manufacturing nano-silica SiO2 reinforced composite laminates.

Repeatability to manufacture nano-silica reinforced composite laminates with consistent mechanical properties is studied. In this study, composite laminates are manufactured by hand layup and there after mechanical properties of the laminates are evaluated under tensile and flexural loading conditions. Composite laminates are fabricated and tested under equivalent conditions.

Plain weave E-Glass fabric and epoxy LY are used as reinforcement and matrix. Nano-silica of size 17nm is used as filler. To enhance the reliability of composite characterization, utmost care is taken to avoid defects like voids, surface defects and under-saturations. Homogeneous distribution of nano silica in matrix is analyzed using TEM study. Inconsistencies in mechanical properties are quantified by coefficient of variation.

In this study, the coefficient of variation is estimated in terms of break load for tensile test is 4. Nano-silica as the go material on heat resistant tunnel lining. This paper is concerned with passive fire protection method of protective concrete mix that is made up of fly ash, polypropylene fibre, and nano-silica. Nano-silica is focused on as the innovative material to be used in the composition of the protective concrete mix. The previous experimental studies which analyse the performance of passive fire protection on tunnels are discussed.

This paper also discusses passive fire protection. The fire protection materials and behaviour analyses of tunnel structure are also presented. At the end of the paper, the recommendation of the optimum composition concrete material with fly ash, polypropylene fibre and nano-silica as tunnel lining fire protective materials is proposed. Advances in nanotechnology and the importance of silica as a technological material continue to stimulate computational study of the properties of possible novel silica nanostructures.

Such nano -rods have been predicted by Mallik et al. Here we compare failure mechanisms of such nano -rods under tension, compression, and bending. Embedding of the QM-forces domain is via the scheme of Mallik et al. Morphology conserving aminopropyl functionalization of hollow silica nanospheres in toluene.

Inorganic nanostructures containing cavities of monodisperse diameter distribution find applications in e. One of their possible synthesis routes is the template assisted core-shell synthesis. We synthesized hollow silica spheres around polystyrene cores by the sol-gel method. The polystyrene template was removed by heat treatment leaving behind a hollow spherical shell structure. The surface of the spheres was then modified by adding aminopropyl groups.

Here we present the first experimental evidence that toluene is a suitable alternative functionalization medium for the resulting thin shells, and report the comprehensive characterization of the amino-functionalized hollow silica spheres based on scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption, FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electrokinetic potential measurement. Both the presence of the amino groups and the preservation of the hollow spherical morphology were unambiguously proven.

The introduction of the amine functionality adds amphoteric character to the shell as shown by the zeta potential vs. Unlike pristine silica particles, amino-functionalized nanosphere aqueous sols can be stable at both acidic and basic conditions. The nano-silica can be incorporated into polymers for improved mechanical properties. Notably, the interaction between nano-silica and polymer is of a microscopic phenomenon and thus, hard to observe and study by using experimental methods.

The concentration profile results and micromorphologies of equilibrium models suggest PAM molecular chains are easier to be adsorbed on the silica surface than PVA molecular chains in blends. Meanwhile, the FFV and the mobility of polymer chain decrease with the silica concentration, which agrees with the results of mechanical properties, densities, and semicrystalline character.

Straightforward fabrication of black nano silica dusting powder for latent fingerprint imaging. Imaging of latent fingerprint pattern aka fingermark is one of the most important and accurate detection methods in forensic investigation because of the characteristic of individual fingerprint. This detection technique relies on the mechanical adherence of fingerprint powder to the moisture and oily component of the skin left on the surface.

The particle size of fingerprint powder is one of the critical parameter to obtain excellent fingerprint image. This study develops a simple, cheap and straightforward method to fabricate Nano size black dusting fingerprint powder based on Nano silica and applies the powder to visualize latent fingerprint.

The nanostructured silica was prepared from tetraethoxysilane TEOS and then modified with Nano carbon, methylene blue and sodium acetate to color the powder. Finally, as a proof-of-principle, the ability of this black Nano silica dusting powder to image latent fingerprint is successfully demonstrated and the results show that this fingerprint powder provides clearer fingerprint pattern compared to the commercial one highlighting the potential application of the nanostructured silica in forensic science.

Morphological and textural characterization of functionalized particulate silica xerogels. The functionalization of xerogels for use in chromatography and catalysis was carried out by solubilization of amorphous silica using a soxhlet extractor. After functionalization, changes in textural and morphological characteristics of xerogels were investigated by means of nitrogen gas adsorption, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy PALS , and scanning electron microscopy SEM.

As the analysis methods are based on different physical principles, the results are complementary, leading to a good knowledge of the texture of the samples studied. Silica -coated, silicon nanotubes SCSNTs and silica -coated, silicon nanoparticles SCSNPs have been synthesized by catalyst-free single-step gas phase condensation using the arc plasma process. Both nano -structures had a high specific surface area. The present study has demonstrated cheaper, resistance-free and effective antibacterial activity in silica -coated silicon nano -structures, each for two Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

The minimum inhibitory concentration MIC was estimated, using the optical densitometric technique, and by determining colony-forming units. The MIC was found to range in the order of micrograms, which is comparable to the reported MIC of metal oxides for these bacteria.

A novel nano -hybrid was synthesized through immobilization of amine-functionalized silica gel nanoparticles with nanomagnetite via a co-precipitation technique. The parameters, such as reagent concentrations, reaction temperature and time, were optimized to accomplish the nano-silica gel chelating matrix. The most proper amine-modified silica gel nanoparticles were immobilized with magnetic nanoparticles.

The pseudo-second-order rate kinetics is appropriate to describe the copper sorption process onto the fabricated MANSG. Chirality of the 1,4-phenylene- silica nanoribbons at the nano and angstrom levels. We reported the preparation of chiral 1,4-phenylene- silicas , using a sol-gel transcription approach, by self-assembly using low-molecular-weight gelators as templates. The silicas exhibited chirality at both the nano and angstrom levels. However, the relation between the chirality at the nano level and that at the angstrom levels has not been well studied.

In this study, chiral 1,4-phenylene- silica nanoribbons were prepared by the self-assemblies of three chiral cationic gelators derived from amino acids as templates. These samples were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and circular dichroism.

The results indicated that the handedness of the nanoribbons and the stacking of the aromatic rings were controllable. Although the nanoribbons exhibited left-handedness at the nano level, the stacking of the aromatic rings could exhibit left- or right-handedness. The handedness of the nanoribbons at the nano level was controlled by the organic self-assembly of the gelator.

However, the stacking of the aromatic rings seemed to be controlled by the gelator itself. Hybrid catechin silica nanoparticle influence on Cu II toxicity and morphological lesions in primary neuronal cells. Morphological alterations compromising inter-neuronal connectivity may be directly linked to learning-memory deficits in Central Nervous System neurodegenerative processes. Cu II -mediated oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in regulating redox reactions generating reactive oxygen species ROS and reactive nitrogen species RNS , known contributors to Alzheimer's disease AD pathology.

The antioxidant properties of flavonoid catechin have been well-documented in neurodegenerative processes. However, the impact that catechin encapsulation in nanoparticles may have on neuronal survival and morphological lesions has been poorly demonstrated. To investigate potential effects of nano -encapsulated catechin on neuronal survival and morphological aberrations in primary rat hippocampal neurons, poly ethyleneglycol PEG and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide CTAB -modified silica nanoparticles were synthesized.

Catechin was loaded on silica nanoparticles in a concentration-dependent fashion, and release studies were carried out. Further physicochemical characterization of the new nano -materials included elemental analysis, particle size, z-potential, FT-IR, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller BET , thermogravimetric TGA , and scanning electron microscopy SEM analysis in order to optimize material composition linked to the delivery of loaded catechin in the hippocampal cellular milieu.

The overall bio-activity profile of the new hybrid nanoparticles a denoted their enhanced protective activity against oxidative stress and hippocampal cell survival compared to previously reported quercetin, b revealed that morphological lesions affecting neuronal integrity can be counterbalanced at high copper concentrations, and c warrants in-depth perusal of molecular events underlying neuronal.

The high PL Nano -phosphor has been successfully used in developing latent fingerprint from various forensic relevant materials. Synthesis of nano grade hollow silica sphere via a soft template method. The nano grade hollow silica sphere HSS was synthesized by a novel soft template method.

We found that the precipitate of aluminate had a porous structure that could be the soft template for HSS. After mixing the colloidal silica with the aluminate precipitate, the bubble trapped in this porous structure could form the nano grade HSS. The aluminate precipitate was removed by adjusting the pH of the slurry to approximately 1. The effects of NP content and post-casting sample history on the dispersion morphology were found by small-angle X-ray scattering supplemented by transmission electron microscopy.

Analysis of the X-ray results show that cast and thermally annealed samples exhibited a nearly random particle dispersion. That the same samples, prior to annealing, were not well-dispersed is indicative of thermodynamic miscibility during thermal annealing over the range of NP loadings studied.

The model also indicates, and experiments confirm, that subsequent exposure of the composites to the likely displacer ethyl acetate results in entropic destabilization and demixing into NP-rich and NP-lean phases. Optimisation of nano-silica modified self-compacting high-Volume fly ash mortar. Evaluation of the effects of nano-silica amount and superplasticizer SP dosage on the compressive strength, porosity and slump flow on high-volume fly ash self-consolidating mortar was investigated.

Multiobjective optimisation technique using Design-Expert software was applied to obtain solution based on desirability function that simultaneously optimises the variables and the responses. A desirability function of 0. The experimental and predicted results showed minimal errors in all the measured responses. A study on modification of nanoporous rice husk silica for hydrophobic nano filter.

Nanoporous rice husk silica RHS was modified with alkylsilylation reagents, hexamethyldisilazane, diethoxydiphenylsilane, dichlorodimethylsilane and n-octodecyltrimethoxysilane. The silica samples were characterized with Raman spectrometer, thermal gravimetric analyzer, scanning electron microscope, nitrogen adsorption measurement and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Raman spectra of the modified silica showed growth of the peaks of C-H stretching and CH3 bending at approximateluy cm -1 and approximately cm -1 , respectively.

The microscopic shape of RHS, approximately 20 nm primary particles and their aggregates was almost not changed by the modification but there were colligations of the silica particles in the sample treated with dichlorodimethylsilane or diethoxydiphenylsilane. BET adsorption experiment showed the modification significantly decreased the mean pore size of the silica from approximately 5 nm to approximately 4 nm as well as the pore volume from 0.

From the results, it was concluded that the alkylsilylation reagents reacted with hydroxyl groups on the silica particles as well as in the nano pores while the size of the reagent molecule affected its diffusion and reaction with the hydroxyl groups in the pores. A controlled release of ibuprofen by systematically tailoring the morphology of mesoporous silica materials.

A series of mesoporous silica materials with similar pore sizes, different morphologies and variable pore geometries were prepared systematically. In order to control drug release, ibuprofen was employed as a model drug and the influence of morphology and pore geometry of mesoporous silica on drug release profiles was extensively studied. The drug-loading amount is directly correlated to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, pore geometry, and pore volume; while the drug release profiles can be controlled by tailoring the morphologies of mesoporous silica carriers.

Poly 2-aminothiazole - silica nanocomposite particles: Synthesis and morphology control. Synthesis of conducting polymer- silica colloidal nanocomposites has been recognized as an effective method to overcome the poor processability of heterocyclic conducting polymers prepared by chemical oxidative method. However, the morphology control of such conducting polymer- silica nanocomposites was seldomly reported in the literature. The nanocomposite particles have a well-defined raspberry-like morphology with a silica -rich surface, but a significant fraction of PAT component still exists on the surface and, which is beneficial for its applications.

Furthermore, the surface compositions of the colloidal nanocomposites could be regulated to some extent. Based on the above results, a possible formation mechanism of the spherical nanocomposite particles is proposed.

Critical review of the safety assessment of nano -structured silica additives in food. The development of nano -materials is viewed as one of the most important technological advances of the 21st century and new applications of nano -sized particles in the production, processing, packaging or storage of food are expected to emerge soon.

This trend of growing commercialization of engineered nano -particles as part of modern diet will substantially increase oral exposure. Contrary to the proven benefits of nano -materials, however, possible adverse health effects have generally received less attention. This problem is very well illustrated by nano -structured synthetic amorphous silica SAS , which is a common food additive since several decades although the relevant risk assessment has never been satisfactorily completed.

However, extrapolation to a safe daily intake for humans is problematic due to limitations of this chronic animal study and knowledge gaps as to possible local intestinal effects of SAS particles, primarily on the gut-associated lymphoid system. This uncertainty is aggravated by digestion experiments indicating that dietary SAS particles preserve their nano -sized structure when reaching the intestinal lumen.

An important aspect is whether food-borne particles like SAS alter the function of dendritic cells that, embedded in the intestinal mucosa, act as first-line sentinels of foreign materials. We conclude that nano -particles do not represent a completely new threat and that most potential risks can be assessed following procedures established for conventional chemical hazards. However, specific properties of food-borne nano -particles should be further examined and, for that purpose, in vitro tests with decision-making cells of the immune system are needed to complement existing in vivo studies.

Nano -structured silica coated mesoporous carbon micro-granules for potential application in water filtration. A novel nano -composite spherical micro-granule has been synthesized using a facile technique of solvent evaporation induced assembly of nanoparticles for potential application in water filtration. The spherical micro-granule is comprised of nano -structured shell of hydrophilic silica encapsulating a hydrophobic mesoporous carbon at the core.

Hierarchical structure of such core-shell micro-granules has been rigorously characterized using small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering techniques and complemented with scanning electron microscopy. The hydrophilic silica envelope around the carbon core helps in incorporation of such granules into the hydrophilic polymeric ultra-filtration membrane.

The interstitial micro-pores present in the silica shell can serve as water transport channels and the mesoporus carbon core enhances the separation performance due its well adsorption characteristics. It has been found that the incorporation of such granules inside the ultra-filtration membrane indeed enhances the water permeability as well as the separation performance in a significant way.

Synthesis of biocompatible hydrophobic silica -gelatin nano -hybrid by sol-gel process. Silica -biopolymer hybrid has been synthesised using colloidal silica as the precursor for silica and gelatin as the biopolymer counterpart. The surface modification of the hybrid material has been done with methyltrimethoxysilane leading to the formation of biocompatible hydrophobic silica -gelatin hybrid.

Here we are reporting hydrophobic silica -gelatin hybrid and coating precursor for the first time. The hybrid gel has been evaluated for chemical modification, thermal degradation, hydrophobicity, particle size, transparency under the UV-visible region and morphology. The hydrophobic property has also been tailored by varying the concentration of methyltrimethoxysilane. Contact angle by Wilhelmy plate method of transparent hydrophobic silica -gelatin coatings has been found to be as high as approximately 95 degrees.

Oxidation of the organic group which induces the hydrophobic character occurs at degrees C which indicates that the surface hydrophobicity is retained up to that temperature. Synthesis of nano -forsterite powder by making use of natural silica sand. Nurbaiti, Upik, E-mail: upik-nurbaiti mail.

Nano -forsterite powder with natural silica sand and magnesium powder as the raw materials have been succesfully synthesized. The silica sand was purified followed by a coprecipitation process to obtain colloidal silica. The diffraction data were qualitatively analyzed using Match! Results of XRD data analysis showed that the forsterite content reached up to The TEM average crystallite size was approximately 53 6 nm.

Morphologic evolution and optical properties of nanostructured gold based on mesoporous silica. In this paper, we report the morphologic evolution and optical properties of nanostructured gold dispersed in monolithic mesoporous silica induced by soaking the silica into a HAuCl4 aqueous solution and subsequent treatments.

It has been shown that the morphology of nanostructured Au depends on the subsequent treatments after soaking. If the HAuCl4-soaked mesoporous silica was dried at 10h and annealed at silica assembly can be formed. Corresponding optical-absorption spectra exhibit a broad absorption band around nm.

The corresponding morphology of the nanostructured Au evolves from the wire, rodlike to a spherical shape. This means that we can control the optical properties of this assembly in a large region by such a simple way. Further experiments reveal that the pore walls of silica have significant reduction effect on AuCl4- ions at a low temperature silica host and drying at silica assembly and hence to show tunable optical properties by subsequent step annealing.

Not a single one of these conditions can be dispensed with. The formation of the Au nanowires is attributed to the low nucleation rate, unidirectional diffusion of Au atoms along the pore. Organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silicas : functionalization, pore size, and morphology control. Topological design of mesoporous silica materials, pore architecture, pore size, and morphology are currently major issues in areas such as catalytic conversion of bulky molecules, adsorption, host-guest chemistry, etc.

In this sense, we discuss the pore size-controlled mesostructure, framework functionalization, and morphology control of organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silicas by which we can improve the applicability of mesoporous materials. First, we explain that the sizes of hexagonal- and cubic-type pores in organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silicas are well controlled from Second, we describe that organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous materials with various functional groups form various external morphologies such as rod, cauliflower, film, rope, spheroid, monolith, and fiber shapes.

Such hybrid mesoporous silica materials are expected to be applied as excellent catalysts for organic reactions, photocatalysis, optical devices, etc. Therefore, abrasion resistance is one of the most important properties of concern for RCC pavement.

In this study, response surface methodology was used to design, evaluate and analyze the effect of partial replacement of fine aggregate with crumb rubber, and addition of nano silica on the abrasion resistance of roller compacted rubbercrete RCR. RCR is the terminology used for RCC pavement where crumb rubber was used as partial replacement to fine aggregate. The Cantabro loss method was used to measure the abrasion resistance.

The results showed that the abrasion resistance of RCR decreases with increase in crumb rubber content, and increases with increase in addition of nano silica. The analysis of variance shows that the model developed using response surface methodology RSM has a very good degree of correlation, and can be used to predict the abrasion resistance of RCR with a percentage error of 5.

The combination of The synthesized photocatalyst composition was developed using nano -TiO 2 as the photoactive component and zeolite ZSM-5 as the adsorbents, all supported on silica gel using colloidal silica gel binder. Its high photocatalytic activity was due to its large specific surface area The SNTZS photocatalyst synthesized in this study also has been proven to have an excellent adhesion and reusability. A novel liquid template corrosion approach for layered silica with various morphologies and different nanolayer thicknesses.

After adding aqueous ammonia the EA becomes hydrolyzed, which results in corrosion of microemulsion droplets. These droplets subsequently act as templates for the synthesis of silica formed by hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate. The morphological evolution of silica can be tuned by varying the concentration of aqueous ammonia which controls the degree of corrosion of the microemulsion droplet templates. A possible mechanism is proposed to explain why the LTC approach affords layered silica nanostructured materials with various morphologies and nanolayer thickness 2.

Our method provides a simple way to fabricate a variety of building blocks for assembling nanomaterials with novel structures and functionality, which are not available using conventional template methods. This work presents simulation, analysis and implementation of morphology tuning of gold nano -island structures deposited by a novel convective assembly technique. The gold nano -islands were simulated using 3D Finite-Difference Time-Domain FDTD techniques to investigate the effect of morphological changes and adsorption of protein layers on the localized surface plasmon resonance LSPR properties.

Gold nano -island structures were deposited on glass substrates by a novel and low-cost convective assembly process. The structure formed by an uncontrolled deposition method resulted in a nano -cluster morphology , which was annealed at various temperatures to tune the optical absorbance properties by transforming the nano -clusters to a nano -island morphology by modifying the structural shape and interparticle separation distances.

The dependence of the size and the interparticle separation distance of the nano -islands on the LSPR properties were analyzed in the simulation. The effect of adsorption of protein layer on the nano -island structures was simulated and a relation between the thickness and the refractive index of the protein layer on the LSPR peak was presented. Further, the sensitivity of the gold nano -island integrated sensor against refractive index was computed and compared with the experimental results.

Preparation of superhydrophobic and transparent micro- nano hybrid coatings from polymethylhydroxysiloxane and silica ormosil aerogels. The hybrids were spin coated on glass substrate at rpm for 60 seconds and used for further analysis. The surface morphology and chemical compositions of the hybrids were analyzed by high resolution scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force spectroscopy, adsorption and desorption isotherm, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

The transparency, thermal decomposition and static contact angle SCA of each sample were measured by UV-Visible spectrophotometer, TGA and drop shape analysis system, respectively. The spin coated substrates showed good superhydrophobic properties, thermal stability as well as transparency on the glass substrates. Furthermore, simulations are based on coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of aminopolymer composites where a branched aminopolymer, representing poly ethylenimine PEI , is impregnated into different silica mesoporous supports.

Simulations predict that a 3D pore morphology , such as those of KIT-6, MCM, and SBA, will have faster segmental mobility and have lower probability of primary amine and surface silanol associations, which should translate to higher CO 2 uptake in comparison to a 2D pore morphology such as that of SBA Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in As2S3- silica " nano -spike" step-index waveguide. Efficient generation of a broad-band mid-infrared supercontinuum spectrum is reported in an arsenic trisulphide waveguide embedded in silica.

The nano -spike is fully encapsulated in a fused silica cladding, protecting it from the environment. Nano -spikes provide a convenient means of launching light into sub-wavelength scale waveguides. The spectrum generated will have immediate uses in metrology and infrared spectroscopy.

MacLeod, Bruce D. A study of the continuous wave CW laser induced damage threshold LiDT of fused silica and yttrium aluminum garnet YAG optics was conducted to further illustrate the enhanced survivability within high power laser systems of an anti-reflection AR treatment consisting of randomly distributed surface relief nanostructures RAR. Initial results for accumulated power, stationary site exposures of RAR nano -textured optics showed no damage and low surface temperatures similar to the control optics with no AR treatment.

In contrast, optics with thin-film AR coatings showed high surface temperatures consistent with absorption by the film layers. Surface discriminating absorption measurements made using the Photothermal Common-path Interferometry PCI method, showed zero added surface absorption for the RAR nanotextured optics, and absorption levels in the part per million range for thin-film AR coated optics.

In addition, the surface absorption of thin-film AR coatings was also found to have localized absorption spikes that are likely pre-cursors for damage. Significantly, none of the 10 RAR nano -textured fused silica optics tested could be damaged up to the maximum system intensity of YAG optics tested during the final cycle exhibited a similar result with RAR nano -textured surfaces surviving intensities over 3 times higher than thin. Formation and metrology of dual scale nano-morphology on SF 6 plasma etched silicon surfaces.

Surface roughness and nano-morphology in SF 6 plasma etched silicon substrates are investigated in a helicon type plasma reactor as a function of etching time and process parameters. The plasma etched surfaces are analyzed by atomic force microscopy. It is found that dual scale nano -roughness is formatted on the silicon surface comprising an underlying nano -roughness and superimposed nano -mounds.

Detailed metrological quantification is proposed for the characterization of dual scale surface morphology. As etching proceeds, the mounds become higher, fewer and wider, and the underlying nano -roughness also increases. Increase in wafer temperature leads to smoother surfaces with lower, fewer and wider nano -mounds.

A mechanism based on the deposition of etch inhibiting particles during the etching process is proposed for the explanation of the experimental behavior. Fiber Bragg grating filter using evaporated induced self assembly of silica nano particles. In the present work we conduct a study of fiber filters produced by evaporation of silica particles upon a MM-fiber core.

A band filter was designed and theoretically verified using a 2D Comsol simulation model of a 3D problem, and calculated in the frequency domain in respect to refractive index. The fiber filters were fabricated by stripping and chemically etching the middle part of an MM-fiber until the core was exposed. The experimental results indicated a broader bandwidth than indicated by the simulations which can be explained by the mismatch in the particle size distributions, uneven particle packing and finally by effects from multiple mode angles.

Thus, there are several closely connected Bragg wavelengths that build up the broader bandwidth. The experimental part shows that it is possible by narrowing the particle size distributing and better control of the particle packing, the filter effectiveness can be greatly improved. Silica minerals are quite common mineral species in surface environment of the terrestrial planets.

They are good indicator of terrestrial processes including hydrothermal alteration, diagenesis and soil formation. Hydrothermal quartz, metastable low temperature cristobalite and amorphous silica show characteristic morphology and crystallinity depending on their formation processes and kinetics under wide range of temperature, pressure, acidity and thermal history.

In this study, silica minerals produced by acidic hydrothermal alteration related to volcanic activities and hydrothermal crystallization experiments from diatom sediment are examined with crystallographic analysis and morphologic observations.

XRD analysis revealed that the alteration degree of whole rock is represented by abundance of cristobalite. Detailed powder XRD analysis show that the primary diffraction peak of cristobalite composed with two or three phases with different d-spacing and FWHM by peak profile fitting analysis. Shorter d-spacing and narrower FWHM cristobalite crystallize from precursor materials with less-crystallized, longer d-spacing and wider FWHM cristobalite.

Textures of hydrothermal cristobalite in altered rock shows remnant of porphylitic texture of the host rock, pyroxene-amphibole andesite. Diatom has amorphous silica shell and makes diatomite sediment. Diatomite found in less diagenetic Quarternary formation keeps amorphous silica diatom shells.

Mineral composition of run products shows crystallization of cristobalite and quartz progress depending on temperature and run durations. Initial crystallization product, cristobalite grains occur as characteristic lepispheres and. Concentration gradient induced morphology evolution of silica nanostructure growth on photoresist-derived carbon micropatterns.

The evolution of silica nanostructure morphology induced by local Si vapor source concentration gradient has been investigated by a smart design of experiments. Silica nanostructure or their assemblies with different morphologies are obtained on photoresist-derived three-dimensional carbon microelectrode array. Both vapor-liquid-solid and vapor-quasiliquid-solid growth mechanisms have been applied to explain the diverse morphologies involving branching, connecting, and batch growth behaviors.

The present approach offers a potential method for precise design and controlled synthesis of nanostructures with different features. Pyrolytic carbon membranes containing silica : morphological approach on gas transport behavior. Pyrolytic carbon membrane containing silica C-SiO 2 is a new-class material for gas separation, and in the present work we will deal with it in view of the morphological changes arising from the difference in the molecular structure of the polymeric precursors.

The silica embedded carbon membranes were fabricated by a predetermined pyrolysis step using imide-siloxane copolymers PISs that was synthesized from benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydrides BTDA , 4,4'-oxydianiline ODA , and amine-terminated polydimethylsiloxane PDMS. To induce different morphologies at the same chemical composition, the copolymers were prepared using one-step preferentially a random segmented copolymer sand two-step polymerization a block segmented copolymer methods.

The polymeric precursors and their pyrolytic C-SiO 2 membranes were analyzed using thermal analysis, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, etc. It was found that the C-SiO 2 membrane derived from the random PIS copolymer showed a micro-structure containing small well-dispersed silica domains, whereas the C-SiO 2 membrane from the block PIS copolymer exhibited a micro-structure containing large silica domains in the continuous carbon matrix.

Eventually, the gas transport through these C-SiO 2 membranes was significantly affected by the morphological changes of the polymeric precursors. Structure and morphology evolution of silica -modified pseudoboehmite aerogels during heat treatment. Pakharukova, V. The phase transformations, changes in structure and morphology upon calcination were thoroughly investigated by advanced X-Ray diffraction XRD techniques and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy HRTEM.

Obtained pseudoboehmite samples had specific nanostructure: ultrathin two-dimensional 2D crystallites were loosely packed. The silica dopant drastically enhanced the crystallite anisotropy. Thus, the aerogel with Al:Si atomic ratio of consisted of the pseudoboehmite nanosheets with thickness of one unit cell average dimensions of Direct simulation of XRD patterns with using the Debye Scattering Equation allowed the size and morphology of pseudoboehmite crystallites to be determined.

Thermal stability of alumina was suggested to be affected by the particle morphology inherited from the pseudoboehmite precursor. Atomic force microscopy AFM was used for visualization of a nano -oxidation technique performed on diamond-like carbon DLC thin film. Experiments of the nano -oxidation technique of the DLC thin film include those on nano -oxidation points and nano -oxidation lines.

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Bi-stage time evolution of nano-morphology on inductively coupled plasma etched fused silica surface caused by surface morphological transformation.

Betting bangarraju actress turturro All rights reserved. This study may be considered as an important step towards better understanding the use of nano-silica in concrete. The disintegration behavior was monitored by analyzing roughness values by white light interferometry and supporting SEM imaging. Additionally, the result of in vitro bioassay test confirms that the inhibition efficacy of the three hybrids showed a positive correlation to the drug loading capacity. Results showed that mixes of nano silica and crushed silica gel showed a higher pozzolanic activity index. When the membrane was treated by filtration of approximately nm sized rice husk silica particles, the permeability decreased to 4. A theoretical model based on surface morphological change is proposed.
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7 card stud poker betting online Concentration gradient induced morphology evolution of silica nanostructure growth on photoresist-derived carbon micropatterns. The key idea is that at the beginning, etched surface is dual-scale, and both larger deposition rate of etch inhibitors and better plasma etching resistance at the surface peaks than surface valleys contribute to the roughness development. Mercury intrusion curves sports betting jargon that the median size of the nanopores betting bangarraju actress turturro by primary silica aggregates in the samples after resin burn-out is consistently larger than that of the sample without resin infiltration. A general increase of flexural strength over the reference mix was achieved and an overall better behaviour is recognizable for mortars containing treated fibers. It is found that dual scale nano -roughness is formatted on the silicon surface comprising an underlying nano -roughness and superimposed nano -mounds. The development of nano -materials is viewed as one of the most important technological advances of the 21st century and new applications of nano -sized particles in the production, processing, packaging or storage of food are expected to emerge soon. For MWCNTs on silicaafter 3 s irradiation, nanoscale welding with good quality can be achieved due to breaking C—C bonds and formation of new graphene layers.
Erika labbus bettinghausen Pure mannitol microparticles were solid and spherical, while the addition of nanoparticles resulted in raisin-shaped hollow particles. The lichens soccerpunter predictions today/betting to the rocks were mainly Stereocaulon vesuvianum, fruticose lichen, which are widespread over the study area. The TEM average crystallite size was approximately 53 6 nm. Specifically, the effect of type, concentration, temperature and frequency were considered. Paris Phyllin VII combined with silica nano complex treatment can inhibit the ovarian carcinoma in nude mice, which may mediate by the enhancement of antioxidant capability in nude mice with ovarian cancer. We evaluated micro- and nano -CT imaging to demonstrate and quantify neovascularization in bony integration of a biomaterial and to give an image based estimation for the needed resolution for imaging angiogenesis in an animal model of femora defect healing. Low fees.
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Turturro hosted Saturday Night Live in , where he spoofed his then-recently made film, Quiz Show , being told he was ineligible to host unless he answered questions in a booth and if he failed, the honor of hosting would go to Joey Buttafuoco , who was actually backstage to witness Turturro's test.

Turturro produced and directed, as well as acted in, the film Illuminata , which also starred his wife, actress Katherine Borowitz. He wrote and directed the film Romance and Cigarettes In , he directed and had cameo on-screen appearances in Passione , which chronicles the rich musical heritage of Naples, Italy.

His stage directorial debut was in October , with the Broadway play Relatively Speaking , in which he guided an ensemble of veteran actors in a production of three comedic one-act plays, written by Elaine May , Woody Allen and Ethan Coen. Turturro also acts in the film alongside Woody Allen , who plays a novice pimp overseeing the sex work of Turturro's character.

During a September interview, Turturro expressed his intention to draw parallels between sex work and acting, explaining that the latter is a "service business" in which actors are "acting out people's wishes or fantasies". Turturro's brother is actor Nicholas Turturro. Abstract painter Ralph Turturro, composer and film director Richard Termini , and actress Aida Turturro are his cousins. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Italian American actor, writer and director.

Brooklyn , New York City, U. Actor writer producer director. Katherine Borowitz. Nicholas Turturro brother Aida Turturro cousin. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Saint Paul Pioneer Press. June 1, Retrieved March 27, February 28, Retrieved March 14, Retrieved April 7, The Guardian. Retrieved September 13, September 19, Bergen Museum of Art and Science. Retrieved February 23, January 27, Retrieved August 15, AM NY. Retrieved February 28, August 17, Retrieved August 17, Films directed by John Turturro. Awards for John Turturro. Ray Milland Edward G. Namespaces Article Talk.

Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Turturro in May United States Italy. The Flamingo Kid. Desperately Seeking Susan. To Live and Die in L. Hannah and Her Sisters. The Color of Money. The Sicilian. State of Grace. The Search for One-eye Jimmy.

Search and Destroy. The Truce. The Big Lebowski. Animals with the Tollkeeper. O Brother, Where Art Thou? The Man Who Cried. Company Man. Two Thousand and None. The Luzhin Defence. Thirteen Conversations About One Thing. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

American actress. This biography of a living person needs additional citations for verification. Please help by adding reliable sources. Contentious material about living persons that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately , especially if potentially libelous or harmful. Turturro at the Tribeca Film Festival. Brooklyn , New York , U. Retrieved December 21, CS1 maint: others link.

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