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As part of the program, the DOE seeks to assess the extent of contamination and to evaluate the potential risks to humans and the environment from byproducts of weapons testing. To accomplish this objective, the DOE Environmental Restoration Program is constructing and calibrating a ground-water flow model to predict hydrologic flow in Yucca Flat as part of an effort to quantify the subsurface hydrology of the Nevada Test Site. A necessary part of calibrating and evaluating a model of the flow system is an understanding of the location and characteristics of faults that may influence ground-water flow.
In addition, knowledge of fault-zone architecture and physical properties is a fundamental component of the containment of the contamination from underground nuclear tests, should such testing ever resume at the Nevada Test Site.
The goal of the present investigation is to develop a detailed understanding of the geometry and physical properties of fault zones in Yucca Flat. This study was designed to investigate faults in greater detail and to characterize fault geometry, the presence of fault splays, and the fault-zone width.
Integrated geological and geophysical studies have been designed and implemented to work toward this goal. This report describes the geophysical surveys conducted near two drill holes in Yucca Flat, the data analyses performed, and the. Iron oxide nanoparticles are of interest in a wide range of biomedical applications due to their response to applied magnetic fields and their unique magnetic properties. Magnetization measurements in constant and time-varying magnetic field are often carried out to quantify key properties of iron oxide nanoparticles.
This chapter describes the importance of thorough magnetic characterization of iron oxide nanoparticles intended for use in biomedical applications. A basic introduction to relevant magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles is given, followed by protocols and conditions used for measurement of magnetic properties, along with examples of data obtained from each measurement, and methods of data analysis.
Characterization of magnetic colloids by means of magnetooptics. A new, efficient method for the characterization of magnetic colloids based on the Faraday effect is proposed. According to the main principles of this technique, it is possible to detect the stray magnetic field of the colloidal particles induced inside the magnetooptical layer.
The magnetic properties of individual particles can be determined providing measurements in a wide range of magnetic fields. The magnetization curves of capped colloids and paramagnetic colloids were measured by means of the proposed approach. The registration of the magnetooptical signals from each colloidal particle in an ensemble permits the use of this technique for testing the magnetic monodispersity of colloidal suspensions.
Characterizing permanent magnet blocks with Helmholtz coils. Most of the insertion devices to be installed at the Advanced Photon Source will utilize permanent magnets in their magnetic structures. The quality of the spectral output is sensitive to the errors in the field of the device which are related to variations in the magnetic properties of the individual blocks.
The Advanced Photon Source will have a measurement facility to map the field in the completed insertion devices and equipment to test and modify the magnetic strength of the individual magnet blocks. One component of the facility, the Helmholtz coil permanent magnet block measurement system, has been assembled and tested. This system measures the total magnetic moment vector of a block with a precision better than 0. The design and performance of the system will be presented.
Characterization of magnetic force microscopy probe tip remagnetization for measurements in external in-plane magnetic fields. A quantitative analysis of magnetic force microscopy MFM images taken in external in-plane magnetic fields is difficult because of the influence of the magnetic field on the magnetization state of the magnetic probe tip.
We prepared calibration samples by ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning with a topographically flat magnetic pattern magnetically stable in a certain external magnetic field range for a quantitative characterization of the MFM probe tip magnetization in point-dipole approximation. Analysis of magnetic -dipole transitions in tungsten plasmas using detailed and configuration-average descriptions. This paper is devoted to the analysis of transition arrays of magnetic -dipole M1 type in highly charged ions.
Such transitions play a significant role in highly ionized plasmas, for instance in the tungsten plasma present in tokamak devices. A comparison of magnetic -dipole transitions with electric-dipole E1 transitions shows that, while the latter are better described by transition array formulas, M1 absorption and emission structures reveal some insufficiency of these formulas.
It is demonstrated that the detailed spectra account for significantly richer structures than those predicted by the transition array formalism. This is due to the fact that M1 transitions may occur between levels inside the same relativistic configuration, while such inner configuration transitions are not accounted for by the currently available averaging expression. These missing transitions are collected in pseudo-arrays using a post-processing method described in this paper.
The relative influence of inner- and inter-configuration transitions is carefully analyzed in cases of tungsten ions with net charge around The need for an additional theoretical development is emphasized. Mineralogical characterization of rendering mortars from decorative details of a baroque building in Kozuchow SW Poland. Two separate coats of rendering mortars have been distinguished, differing in composition of their filler.
The under coat mortar has filler composed of coarse-grained siliceous sand, whereas the finishing one has much finer grained filler, dominated by a mixture of charcoal and Fe-smelting slag, with minor amounts of quartz grains. Therapeutic magnetic microcarriers characterization by measuring magnetophoretic attributes.
We have proposed to embed magnetic nanoparticles in therapeutic or diagnostic agents in order to magnetically control them. A modified clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI scanner is used to provide the driving force that allows these magnetically embedded microcarriers to navigate the vascular human network. By using specific Magnetic Resonance MR gradient sequences this method has been validated in previous research works.
Magnetophoresis is the term used to describe the fact that a magnetic particle changes its trajectory under the influence of a magnetic force while being carried by a fluid flow. This movement depends on the particle's magnetic characteristics, the particle's geometric shape, the fluid flow's attributes and other factors.
In our proposed method, magnetic microcarriers can be produced in several different ways, and so their response will differ to the same magnetic force and fluid flow conditions. Such characterization is essential for determining the optimal sequences of magnetic gradients to deflect their trajectory through relatively complex vascular networks in order to reach a pre-defined target. A microfluidic device was fabricated to validate the design. Magnetophoretic velocities are measured and a simple tracking method is proposed.
The preliminary experimental results indicate that, despite some limitations, the proposed technique has the potential to be appropriate. We have recently described manufacturing of human induced pluripotent stem cells iPSC master cell banks MCB generated by a clinically compliant process using cord blood as a starting material Baghbaderani et al.
In this manuscript, we describe the detailed characterization of the two iPSC clones generated using this process, including whole genome sequencing WGS , microarray, and comparative genomic hybridization aCGH single nucleotide polymorphism SNP analysis. We compare their profiles with a proposed calibration material and with a reporter subclone and lines made by a similar process from different donors.
We believe that iPSCs are likely to be used to make multiple clinical products. We further believe that the lines used as input material will be used at different sites and, given their immortal status, will be used for many years or even decades. Therefore, it will be important to develop assays to monitor the state of the cells and their drift in culture.
We suggest that a detailed characterization of the initial status of the cells, a comparison with some calibration material and the development of reporter sublcones will help determine which set of tests will be most useful in monitoring the cells and establishing criteria for discarding a line. Detailed physico-chemical characterization of microplastics from North Atlantic Gyre.
More than million tonnes of plastic are used each year. Based on population density and economic status of costal countries the mass of land based plastic waste entering the ocean was recently estimated between 4. Most striking is the estimation for that this amount will increase by an order of magnitude if waste management infrastructures are not improved. Plastic debris is abundant and widespread in the marine habitat.
Marine plastic pollution has been recently recognized as a global environmental threat2. There is still a need for detailed research in terms of estimating the global scale of plastic inputs, their fate in the environment as well as the biological responses to plastic exposure in a variety of marine organisms. In this context, the present study aimed at giving a detailed physico-chemical characterization of the microplastics collected at the surface of the North Atlantic accumulation zone.
A detailed description of the plastics is given in terms of size, width, density and weight together with a microscopic and infrared spectroscopy characterization. In this study, also we introduce a new fragmentation mechanism of the microplastics based on the physico-chemical data collected.
This approach will be helpful for oceanographic modelling. The results will be also very useful to better understand the biological response to the plastic in terms of transfer of chemical in case of ingestion or to better understand the formation and development of the plastisphere.
Environmental Research , , 2 , Mantle cell lymphoma MCL is a chronically relapsing aggressive type of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma considered incurable by currently used treatment approaches. Fludarabine is a purine analog clinically still widely used in the therapy of relapsed MCL. Molecular mechanisms of fludarabine resistance have not, however, been studied in the setting of MCL so far.
Sensitivity to other types of anti-lymphoma agents was altered only mildly methotrexate, doxorubicin, bortezomib or remained unaffacted cisplatin, bendamustine. Our data thus demonstrate that a detailed molecular analysis of drug-resistant tumor cells can indeed open a way to personalized therapy of resistant malignancies.
In air pollution epidemiologic studies with spatially resolved air pollution data, exposures are often estimated using the home locations of individual subjects. Due primarily to lack of data or logistic difficulties, the spatiotemporal mobility of subjects are mostly neglected, which are expected to result in exposure misclassification errors.
In this study, we applied detailed cell phone location data to characterize potential exposure misclassification errors associated with home-based exposure estimation of air pollution. The cell phone data sample consists of 9, unique simcard IDs collected on one mid-week day in October, from Shenzhen, China. The Community Multi-scale Air Quality model was used to simulate hourly ambient concentrations of six chosen pollutants at 3 km spatial resolution, which were then fused with observational data to correct for potential modeling biases and errors.
Air pollution exposure for each simcard ID was estimated by matching hourly pollutant concentrations with detailed location data for corresponding IDs. Finally, the results were compared with exposure estimates obtained using the home location method to assess potential exposure misclassification errors. Our results show that the home-based method is likely to have substantial exposure misclassification errors, over-estimating exposures for subjects with higher exposure levels and under-estimating exposures for those with lower exposure levels.
This has the potential to lead to a bias-to-the-null in the health effect estimates. Our findings suggest that the use of cell phone data has the potential for improving the characterization of exposure and exposure misclassification in air pollution epidemiology studies. Quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation: A novel technique for the characterization of magnetic particles.
In the last few decades, the development and use of nanotechnology has become of increasing importance. Magnetic nanoparticles, because of their unique properties, have been employed in many different areas of application. They are generally made of a core of magnetic material coated with some other material to stabilize them and to help disperse them in suspension. The unique feature of magnetic nanoparticles is their response to a magnetic field.
They are generally superparamagnetic, in which case they become magnetized only in a magnetic field and lose their magnetization when the field is removed. It is this feature that makes them so useful for drug targeting, hyperthermia and bioseparation.
For many of these applications, the synthesis of uniformly sized magnetic nanoparticles is of key importance because their magnetic properties depend strongly on their dimensions. Because of the difficulty of synthesizing monodisperse particulate materials, a technique capable of characterizing the magnetic properties of polydisperse samples is of great importance.
Quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation MgFFF is a technique capable of fractionating magnetic particles based on their content of magnetite or other magnetic material. In MgFFF, the interplay of hydrodynamic and magnetic forces separates the particles as they are carried along a separation channel. Since the magnetic field and the gradient in magnetic field acting on the particles during their migration are known, it is possible to calculate the quantity of magnetic material in the particles according to their time of emergence at the channel outlet.
Knowing the magnetic properties of the core material, MgFFF can be used to determine both the size distribution and the mean size of the magnetic cores of polydisperse samples. When magnetic material is distributed throughout the volume of the particles, the derived data corresponds to a distribution in equivalent spherical diameters of magnetic material in.
A monitoring campaign was conducted in August-September to compare different experimental approaches quantifying school bus self-pollution. As part of this monitoring campaign, a detailed characterization of PM2. To distinguish between tailpipe and crankcase vent emissions, a deuterated alkane, n-hexatriacontane-d74 n-C36D74 was added to the engine oil to serve as intentional quantitative tracers for lubricating oil PM emissions.
This paper focuses on the detailed chemical speciation of crankcase and tailpipe PM emissions from two school buses used in this study. We found that organic carbon emission rates were generally higher from the crankcase than from the tailpipe for these two school buses, while elemental carbon contributed significantly only in the tailpipe emissions. The n-C36D74 that was added to the engine oil was emitted at higher rates from the crankcase than the tailpipe.
Tracers of engine oil hopanes, and steranes were present in much higher proportion in crankcase emissions. Particle-associated PAH emission rates were generally very low Detailed characterization and profiles of crankcase and diesel particulate matter exhaust emissions using speciated organics.
To distinguish between tailpipe and crankcase vent emissions, a deuterated alkane, n-hexatriacontane-d74 n-C36D74 was added to the engine oil to serve as an intentional quantitative tracer for lubricating oil PM emissions. Tracers of engine oil hopanes and steranes were present in much higher proportion in crankcase emissions. Particle-associated PAH emission rates were generally very low Eddy current characterization of magnetic treatment of nickel Eddy current methods have been applied to characterize the effect of magnetic treatments on component service-life extension.
Coil impedance measurements were acquired and analyzed on nickel specimens that have been subjected to many mechanical and magnetic engineering processes: annealing, applied strain, magnetic field, shot peening, and magnetic field after peening. Experimental results have demonstrated a functional relationship between coil impedance, resistance and reactance, and specimens subjected to various engineering processes.
It has shown that magnetic treatment does induce changes in electromagnetic properties of nickel that then exhibit evidence of stress relief. However, further fundamental studies are necessary for a thorough understanding of the exact mechanism of the magnetic field processing effect on machine-tool service life. Detailed characterization of particulate matter emitted by lean-burn gasoline direct injection engine.
This study presents detailed characterization of the chemical and physical properties of PM emitted by a 2. We characterized PM number concentrations, size distributions, and the size, mass, compositions, and effective density of fractal and compact individual exhaust particles.
For the fractal particles, these measurements yielded fractal dimension, average diameter of primary spherules, and number of spherules, void fraction, and dynamic shape factors as function of particle size. Lean stratified operation yielded the most diesel-like size distribution and the largest PM number and mass concentrations, with nearly all particles being fractal agglomerates composed of elemental carbon with small amounts of ash and organics.
In contrast, stoichiometric operation yielded a larger fraction of ash particles, especially at low speed and low load. Detailed evaluation of the upper urinary tract in patients with prune belly syndrome using magnetic resonance urography. Magnetic resonance urography MRU has proven to be useful in the setting of complex urologic anatomy.
Prune belly syndrome PBS patients are known to have malformed and highly variable urinary tract anatomy due to significant dilation and renal dysplasia. Studies were performed to evaluate severe hydronephrosis in all patients. Demographics, previous imaging, and MRU findings were collected. A single radiologist reviewed all studies. MRU was performed on 13 boys, with a median age of The mean serum creatinine was 0. This summary figure is a coronal excretory phase T1 MRU image demonstrating absence of well-defined calyces and a 5-cm calyceal diverticulum white arrow.
This study reports significant anatomic and functional findings on MRU that were not readily apparent when using standard imaging for children with PBS. The high-resolution images and functional data obtained with MRU allowed for visualization of calyceal diverticula and abnormal renal pelvic anatomy not previously described in PBS. In addition, renal dysplasia could be identified with MRU, which is badly characterized in the PBS population outside of renal biopsy studies.
Potential limitations. System characterization of a magnetically suspended flywheel. The purpose of flywheel energy storage is to provide a means to save energy during times when the satellite is in sunlight, and then return the energy during the time when the satellite is in darkness. Typically, an energy storage device operates cyclically, where for satellites in Low Earth Orbit LEO the typical period is 60 minutes of sunlight followed by 30 minutes of darkness. If a lifetime of 17 years is required the energy storage system must be capable of sustaining approximately , cycles.
The recent developments at the University of Maryland and how these progressions apply to a Watt-hour magnetically suspended flywheel stack energy storage system are covered. The work includes hardware testing results from a stack flywheel energy storage system, improvements in the area of non-contacting displacement transducers, and performance enhancements of magnetic bearings. The experimental results show that a stack flywheel energy storage system is a feasible technology.
Magnetic hyaluronate hydrogels: preparation and characterization. A novel soft way of hyaluronate HyA based magnetic hydrogel preparation was revealed. Magnetite nanoparticles MNPs were prepared by co-precipitation. The results suggest that the HyA-based magnetic hydrogels may be promising formulations for future biomedical applications, e. Versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing magnetic properties of nanoparticles. We constructed a versatile magnetometer assembly for characterizing iron oxide nanoparticles.
The magnetometer can be operated at room temperature or inside a cryocooler at temperatures as low as 6 K. The magnetometer's sensor can be easily exchanged and different detection electronics can be used. We tested the assembly with a non-cryogenic commercial Hall sensor and a benchtop multimeter in a four-wire resistance measurement scheme.
A magnetic moment sensitivity of 8. To illustrate the capability of the assembly, we synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles coated with different amounts of a triblock copolymer, Pluronic F, and characterized their magnetic properties. We determined that the polymer coating does not affect the magnetization of the particles at room temperature and demonstrates that it is possible to estimate the average size of coating layers from measurements of the magnetic field of the sample. Indeed, every year tons of Unexploded-ordnance are discovered in France.
Magnetic measurements are useful to localize magnetized objects. Moreover, it is the cheapest geophysical method which does not impact environment and which is relatively fast to perform. Fluxgate magnetometers three components are used to measure magnetic properties bellow the ground.
These magnetic sensors are not absolute, so they need to be calibrated before the onset of the measurements. The advantage is that they allow magnetic compensation of the equipment attached to the sensor. So the choice of this kind sensor gives the opportunity to install the equipment aboard different magnetized supports: boat, quad bike, unmanned aerial vehicle, aircraft, Indeed, this methodology permits to perform magnetic mapping with different scale and different elevation above ground level.
An old French aerial military plant was chosen to perform this multi-scale approach. The advantage of the site is that it contains a lot of different targets with variable sizes and depth, e. The comparison between measured maps at different elevations and the prolonged map highlights the maximum distance for the target's detection figure.
Submicron magnetic core conducting polypyrrole polymer shell: Preparation and characterization. Magnetic particles are of great interest in various biomedical applications, such as, sample preparation, in vitro biomedical diagnosis, and both in vivo diagnosis and therapy. For in vitro applications and especially in labs-on-a-chip, microfluidics, microsystems, or biosensors, the needed magnetic dispersion should answer various criteria, for instance, submicron size in order to avoid a rapid sedimentation rate, fast separations under an applied magnetic field, and appreciable colloidal stability stable dispersion under shearing process.
Then, the aim of this work was to prepare highly magnetic particles with a magnetic core and conducting polymer shell particles in order to be used not only as a carrier, but also for the in vitro detection step. The prepared magnetic seed dispersions were functionalized using pyrrole and pyrrolecarboxylic acid. The obtained core-shell particles were characterized in terms of particle size, size distribution, magnetization properties, FTIR analysis, surface morphology, chemical composition, and finally, the conducting property of those particles were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry.
The obtained functional submicron highly magnetic particles are found to be conducting material bearing function carboxylic group on the surface. These promising conducting magnetic particles can be used for both transport and lab-on-a-chip detection. Published by Elsevier B. Modular magnetic tweezers for single-molecule characterizations of helicases. Magnetic tweezers provide a versatile toolkit supporting the mechanistic investigation of helicases.
In the present article, we show that custom magnetic tweezers setups are straightforward to construct and can easily be extended to provide adaptable platforms, capable of addressing a multitude of enquiries regarding the functions of these fascinating molecular machines. We first address the fundamental components of a basic magnetic tweezers scheme and review some previous results to demonstrate the versatility of this instrument.
We then elaborate on several extensions to the basic magnetic tweezers scheme, and demonstrate their applications with data from ongoing research. As our methodological overview illustrates, magnetic tweezers are an extremely useful tool for the characterization of helicases and a custom built instrument can be specifically tailored to suit the experimenter's needs. All rights reserved. Magnetic , geochemical characterization and health risk assessment of road dust in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China.
As an accumulation of solid organic and inorganic pollutant particles on outdoor ground surfaces, road dust is an important carrier of heavy metal contaminants and can be a valuable medium for characterizing urban environmental quality. Because the dusts can be an important source of atmospheric particles and take impact on human health, the aim of this study described in detail the mineralogical characteristics, morphology, and heavy metal content of road dust from Xuanwei and Fuyuan, locations with high lung cancer incidence.
Our results show that the average concentrations of heavy metals in road dust were higher than their background values. Higher concentrations of heavy metals were found in the magnetic fractions MFs than in the non- magnetic fractions NMFs. Magnetic measurements revealed high magnetic susceptibility values in the road dust samples, and the dominant magnetic carrier was magnetite.
The magnetic grains were predominantly pseudo-single domain, multi-domain, and coarse-grained stable single domains coarse SSD in size. Hazard index HI values for adults exposure to road dust samples, including MF, Bulk, and NMF, in both areas were lower or close to safe levels, while HI values for childhood exposure to magnetic fractions in both areas were very close or higher than safe levels. Cancer risks from road dust exposure in both areas were in the acceptable value range. Detailed characterization of a long-term rodent model of critical illness and recovery.
To characterize a long-term model of recovery from critical illness, with particular emphasis on cardiorespiratory, metabolic, and muscle function. Randomized controlled animal study. University research laboratory. Male Wistar rats. Intraperitoneal injection of the fungal cell wall constituent, zymosan or n-saline. Following intervention, rats were followed for up to 2 weeks. Animals with zymosan peritonitis reached a clinical and biochemical nadir on day 2.
Initial reductions were seen in body weight, total body protein and fat, and muscle mass. Leg muscle fiber diameter remained subnormal at 14 days with evidence of persisting myonecrosis, even though gene expression of regulators of muscle mass e. Treadmill exercise capacity, forelimb grip strength, and in vivo maximum tetanic force were also reduced. Food intake was minimal until day 4 but increased thereafter.
This did not relate to appetite hormone levels with early 6 hr rises in plasma insulin and leptin followed by persisting subnormal levels; ghrelin levels did not change. Serum interleukin-6 level peaked at 6 hours but had normalized by day 2, whereas interleukin remained persistently elevated and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol persistently depressed. There was an early myocardial depression and rise in core temperature, yet reduced oxygen consumption and respiratory exchange ratio with a loss of diurnal rhythmicity that showed a gradual but incomplete recovery by day 7.
This detailed physiological, metabolic, hormonal, functional, and histological muscle characterization of a model of critical illness and recovery reproduces many of the findings reported in human critical illness. It can be used to assess putative therapies that may attenuate loss, or enhance recovery, of muscle mass and function. A new laboratory-scale experimental facility for detailed aerothermal characterizations of volumetric absorbers.
This paper describes a new modular laboratory-scale experimental facility that was designed to conduct detailed aerothermal characterizations of volumetric absorbers for use in concentrating solar power plants. Absorbers are generally considered to be the element with the highest potential for efficiency gains in solar thermal energy systems.
The configu-ration of volumetric absorbers enables concentrated solar radiation to penetrate deep into their solid structure, where it is progressively absorbed, prior to being transferred by convection to a working fluid flowing through the structure. Current design trends towards higher absorber outlet temperatures have led to the use of complex intricate geometries in novel ceramic and metallic elements to maximize the temperature deep inside the structure thus reducing thermal emission losses at the front surface and increasing efficiency.
Although numerical models simulate the conjugate heat transfer mechanisms along volumetric absorbers, they lack, in many cases, the accuracy that is required for precise aerothermal validations. The present work aims to aid this objective by the design, development, commissioning and operation of a new experimental facility which consists of a 7 kWe 1. Experimental measurements conducted in the facility include absorber solid temperature distributions along its depth, inlet and outlet air temperatures, air mass flow rate and pressure drop, incident radiative heat flux, and overall thermal efficiency.
In addition, two windows allow for the direct visualization of the front and rear absorber surfaces, thus enabling full-coverage surface temperature measurements by thermal imaging cameras. This paper presents the results from the aerothermal characterization of a siliconized silicon. Extended investigation of intermartensitic transitions in Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloys: A detailed phase diagram determination.
Martensitic transitions in shape memory Ni-Mn-Ga Heusler alloys take place between a high temperature austenite and a low temperature martensite phase. However, intermartensitic transformations have also been encountered that occur from one martensite phase to another. Rietveld refined x-ray diffraction results are found to be consistent with magnetization and resistivity data.
The L10 non-modulated structure is most stable at low temperature. Characterization of magnetic nanoparticles using programmed quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation. Quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation is a relatively new technique for the separation and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles.
Magnetic nanoparticles are often of composite nature having a magnetic component, which may be a very finely divided material, and a polymeric or other material coating that incorporates this magnetic material and stabilizes the particles in suspension. There may be other components such as antibodies on the surface for specific binding to biological cells, or chemotherapeutic drugs for magnetic drug delivery.
Magnetic field-flow fractionation MgFFF has the potential for determining the distribution of the magnetic material among the particles in a given sample. MgFFF differs from most other forms of field-flow fractionation in that the magnetic field that brings about particle separation induces magnetic dipole moments in the nanoparticles, and these potentially can interact with one another and perturb the separation. This aspect is examined in the present work.
Samples of magnetic nanoparticles were analysed under different experimental conditions to determine the sensitivity of the method to variation of conditions. The results are shown to be consistent and insensitive to conditions, although magnetite content appeared to be somewhat higher than expected.
Magnetic characterization of isolated candidate vertebrate magnetoreceptor cells. Eder, Stephan H. However, the underlying sensory physiology remains poorly understood due to the elusiveness of the magnetosensory structures. Here we present an effective method for isolating and characterizing potential magnetite-based magnetoreceptor cells. In essence, a rotating magnetic field is employed to visually identify, within a dissociated tissue preparation, cells that contain magnetic material by their rotational behavior.
As a tissue of choice, we selected trout olfactory epithelium that has been previously suggested to host candidate magnetoreceptor cells. We were able to reproducibly detect magnetic cells and to determine their magnetic dipole moment. In confocal reflectance imaging, these produce bright reflective spots close to the cell membrane. The magnetic inclusions are found to be firmly coupled to the cell membrane, enabling a direct transduction of mechanical stress produced by magnetic torque acting on the cellular dipole in situ.
Our results show that the magnetically identified cells clearly meet the physical requirements for a magnetoreceptor capable of rapidly detecting small changes in the external magnetic field. This would also explain interference of ac powerline magnetic fields with magnetoreception, as reported in cattle.
Scanning microwave microscopy technique for nanoscale characterization of magnetic materials. Joseph, C. In this work, microwave characterization of magnetic materials using the scanning microwave microscopy SMM technique is presented. The capabilities of the SMM are employed for analyzing and imaging local magnetic properties of the materials under test at the nanoscale.
The analyses are performed by acquiring both amplitude and phase of the reflected microwave signal. The changes in the reflection coefficient S11 are related to the local properties of the material under investigation, and the changes in its magnetic properties have been studied as a function of an external DC magnetic bias. An equivalent electromagnetic transmission line model is discussed for the quantitative analysis of the local magnetic properties.
We also observed the hysteretic behavior of the reflection coefficient S11 with an external bias field. The imaging and spectroscopy analysis on the experimental results are evidently indicating the possibilities of measuring local changes in the intrinsic magnetic properties on the surface of the material.
The Hydroxyl radical OH is an important oxidant in the daytime troposphere that controls the lifetime of most trace gases, whose oxidation leads to the formation of harmful secondary pollutants such as ozone O3 and Secondary Organic Aerosols SOA. In spite of the importance of OH, uncertainties remain concerning its atmospheric budget and integrated measurements of the total sink of OH can help reducing these uncertainties.
In this context, several methods have been developed to measure the first-order loss rate of ambient OH, called total OH reactivity. Among these techniques, the Comparative Reactivity Method CRM is promising and has already been widely used in the field and in atmospheric simulation chambers. This technique relies on monitoring competitive OH reactions between a reference molecule pyrrole and compounds present in ambient air inside a sampling reactor.
However, artefacts and interferences exist for this method and a thorough characterization of the CRM technique is needed. In this study, we present a detailed characterization of a CRM instrument, assessing the corrections that need to be applied on ambient measurements. The main corrections are, in the order of their integration in the data processing: 1 a correction for a change in relative humidity between zero air and ambient air, 2 a correction for the formation of spurious OH when artificially produced HO2 react with NO in the sampling reactor, and 3 a correction for a deviation from pseudo first-order kinetics.
The dependences of these artefacts to various measurable parameters, such as the pyrrole-to-OH ratio or the bimolecular reaction rate constants of ambient trace gases with OH are also studied. From these dependences, parameterizations are proposed to correct the OH reactivity measurements from the abovementioned artefacts.
A comparison of experimental and simulation results is then discussed. The simulations were performed using a 0-D box model including either 1 a. Preparation and Characterization of an Amphipathic Magnetic Nanosphere. The amphipathic magnetic nanospheres were synthesized using C8 and polyethylene glycol as ligands.
Their morphology, structure, and composition were characterized by transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared, and elementary analysis. The magnetic characteristics of magnetic nanomaterials were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer.
The adsorption capability was also studied by static tests, and the material was applied to enrich benzenesulfonamide from calf serum. The results exhibited that the C8-PEG phase owned better adsorption capability, biocompatible property, and dispersivity in aqueous samples. The quest to achieve the detailed structural and functional characterization of CymA. This bacterium has been used as a model organism for potential applications in bioremediation of contaminated environments and in the production of energy in microbial fuel cells.
The capacity of Shewanella to perform extracellular reduction of metals is linked to the action of several multihaem cytochromes that may be periplasmic or can be associated with the inner or outer membrane. One of these cytochromes is CymA, a membrane-bound tetrahaem cytochrome localized in the periplasm that mediates the electron transfer between the quinone pool in the cytoplasmic membrane and several periplasmic proteins.
Although CymA has the capacity to regulate multiple anaerobic respiratory pathways, little is known about the structure and functional mechanisms of this focal protein. Understanding the structure and function of membrane proteins is hampered by inherent difficulties associated with their purification since the choice of the detergents play a critical role in the protein structure and stability.
In the present mini-review, we detail the current state of the art in the characterization of CymA, and add recent information on haem structural behaviour for CymA solubilized in different detergents. These structural differences are deduced from NMR spectroscopy data that provide information on the geometry of the haem axial ligands.
At least two different conformational forms of CymA are observed for different detergents, which seem to be related to the micelle size. These results provide guidance for the discovery of the most promising detergent that mimics the native lipid bilayer and is compatible with biochemical and structural studies. Preparation and characterization of biocompatible magnetic carbon nanotubes. Also, their biocompatibility was compared with naked carbon nanotubes. The results showed that after coated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles, the obtained magnetic carbon nanotubes show superparamagnetic characteristic at room temperature, and their blocking temperature is about 80 K.
The magnetic properties of the nanotubes are relevant to the content of magnetic particles, increasing content of magnetic nanoparticles leads to higher blocking temperature and saturation magnetization. The results of antimicrobial activities to bacterial cells Escherichia coli showed that the MWNTs have antimicrobial activity, while the magnetic nanotubes are biocompatible even with a higher concentration than that of MWNTs.
Sm and Y radiolabeled magnetic fluids: magnetic and magneto-optical characterization. Aquino, R. We report on magnetic fluids based on samarium and ytrium-doped nanoparticles. The nanostructures chemical composition is checked and X-ray diffraction provides both their mean size and a structural characterization.
Magnetization and magneto-optical birefringence results are presented and well agree with the pure maghemite behavior. Since these particles can become radioactive after neutron activation, they could therefore represent a new perspective for biomedical applications in the radiation therapy of cancer.
Quantitative characterization of nanoscale polycrystalline magnets with electron magnetic circular dichroism. Electron magnetic circular dichroism EMCD allows the quantitative, element-selective determination of spin and orbital magnetic moments, similar to its well-established X-ray counterpart, X-ray magnetic circular dichroism XMCD.
As an advantage over XMCD, EMCD measurements are made using transmission electron microscopes, which are routinely operated at sub-nanometre resolution, thereby potentially allowing nanometre magnetic characterization. However, because of the low intensity of the EMCD signal, it has not yet been possible to obtain quantitative information from EMCD signals at the nanoscale.
Here we demonstrate a new approach to EMCD measurements that considerably enhances the outreach of the technique. The statistical analysis introduced here yields robust quantitative EMCD signals. Moreover, we demonstrate that quantitative magnetic information can be routinely obtained using electron beams of only a few nanometres in diameter without imposing any restriction regarding the crystalline order of the specimen. Magnetic nanowires cobalt, iron and nickel with diameters down to 20 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition.
Both commercial and home-made anodized aluminum oxide AAO membranes with nanochannel arrays were used as templates. The structure and magnetization hysteresis of the specimens with nanowires were investigated with scanning electron microscope SEM and superconducting quantum interference device SQUID , respectively.
Growth of nanowires with both aqueous and dimethylsulfoxide DMSO solutions was conducted and better quality nanowires were obtained with the organic DMSO solution. The influence of the diameter, the length and the separation of the nanochannels on the magnetization orientation was investigated in detail.
Characterization of magnetically enhanced buried soil layer in arid environment. Magnetic topsoil mapping is often used to outline areas polluted by atmospherically deposited dust. However, in these studies, the magnetically enhanced layer is usually shallow, some cm under the surface.
In our contribution, we present the case when the magnetic susceptibility is enhanced in deeper soil layers. Investigated soils are mostly sandy soils, from several localities in Portugal, in a zone with arid climate. Sample profiles were collected always in forests or forest stands with pines, cork oaks or eucalyptus trees in two areas: around the city of Sines on the coast south of Lisbon and around the city of Abrantes inland, north-east of Lisbon.
Both areas are presumably affected by one major source of pollution - power plant. Surface magnetic susceptibility measurements were performed by Bartington MS2D loop; values vary from 10 to x SI units. Vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility was measured already in situ using the SM ZHInstruments on profiles about 40cm in length.
Distinctly enhanced magnetic layers were detected in deeper horizons. This enhancement can be ascribed to several mechanisms. Migration of magnetic particles seems to be probable, as observed in our model experiments with sand columns. In coastal areas, the enhanced layer could be due to tsunami deposits, as described in other areas.
Finally, in particular at sites close to power plants, the construction works followed by surface remediation have to be also considered as one of the possible mechanisms. Broadband complex permeability characterization of magnetic thin films using shorted microstrip transmission-line perturbation. A brief review of the methods used for broadband complex permeability measurement of magnetic thin films up to microwave frequencies is given. In particular, the working principles of the transmission-line perturbation methods for the characterization of magnetic thin films are discussed, with emphasis on short-circuited planar transmission-line perturbation methods.
The algorithms for calculating the complex permeability of magnetic thin films for short-circuited planar transmission-line perturbation methods are analyzed. A shorted microstrip line is designed and fabricated as a prototype measurement fixture. The structure of the microstrip fixture and the corresponding measurement procedure are discussed in detail. A piece of nm thick FeTaN thin film deposited on Si substrate using sputtering method is characterized using the microstrip fixture.
An improved technique for obtaining permeability by using a saturation magnetization field is demonstrated here, and the results fit well with the Landau-Lifchitz-Gilbert theory. Approaches to extending this method to other aspects in the investigation of magnetic thin film are also discussed. Detailing radio frequency heating induced by coronary stents: a 7. Such improvements could be beneficial for cardiovascular MR. However, intracoronary stents used for treatment of coronary artery disease are currently considered to be contra-indications for UHF-MR.
The antenna effect induced by a stent together with RF wavelength shortening could increase local radiofrequency RF power deposition at 7. Realizing these constraints, this work examines RF heating effects of stents using electro- magnetic field EMF simulations and phantoms with properties that mimic myocardium.
For this purpose, RF power deposition that exceeds the clinical limits was induced by a dedicated birdcage coil. Fiber optic probes and MR thermometry were applied for temperature monitoring using agarose phantoms containing copper tubes or coronary stents. The results demonstrate an agreement between RF heating induced temperature changes derived from EMF simulations versus MR thermometry.
The birdcage coil tailored for RF heating was capable of irradiating power exceeding the specific-absorption rate SAR limits defined by the IEC guidelines by a factor of three. The maximum extra temperature increase, induced by a copper tube or a coronary stent was less than 3 K. The coronary stents examined showed an RF heating behavior similar to a copper tube. Detailed magnetic and gravity surveys around the hydrothermal area off Kumejima Island in the Mid-Okinawa Trough, southwestern Japan.
The Okinawa Trough is an active back-arc basin formed by the rifting associated with extension of the continental margin behind the Ryukyu trench. New hydrothermal sites were recently discovered off Kumejima Island in the Mid-Okinawa Trough and the hydrothermal mineral deposits were identified by seafloor surveys and rock samplings by ROV e. In order to characterize the sub-seafloor structures and the spatial distribution of the magmatic activity around the sites, we conducted the dense magnetic , gravity and bathymetric surveys with a line spacing of 0.
Magnetic anomaly was calculated by subtracting the IGRF model and the magnetization intensity was estimated by the method of Parker and Huestis Bouguer gravity anomaly was calculated based on the method of Parker The magnetization intensity and the Bouguer gravity anomaly reveal three characteristics of the hydrothermal area off Kumejima Island: 1 The distribution of magnetization around the hydrothermal sites shows two different types of sub-seafloor magnetic features.
The other is an ENE-WSW trending magnetization distribution with relatively high and low intensities, which is consistent with the trend of the bathymetric lineament. These features are considered to be formed by magmatism associated with submarine volcanoes and back-arc rifting. Makeup and uses of a basic magnet laboratory for characterizing high-temperature permanent magnets.
A set of instrumentation for making basic magnetic measurements was assembled in order to characterize high intrinsic coercivity, rare earth permanent magnets with respect to short term demagnetization resistance and long term aging at temperatures up to C.
The major specialized components of this set consist of a 13 T peak field, capacitor discharge pulse magnetizer ; a 10 in. A 1 cm cubic magnet sample, carried by the paddle, fits snugly between the pole piece extensions within the electrically heated aluminum oven, where fields up to 3.
A sample set of demagnetization data for the high energy Sm2Co17 type of magnet is given for temperatures up to C. These data are reduced to the temperature dependence of the M-H knee field and of the field for a given magnetic induction swing, and they are interpreted to show the limits of safe operation. Fabrication and nanoscale characterization of magnetic multilayer nanowires. Magnetic multilayers nanowires are scientifically fascinating and have potential industrial applications in many areas of advanced nanotechnology.
These applications arise due to the nanoscale dimensions of nanostructures that lead to unique physical properties. Magnetic multilayer nanowires have been successfully produced by electrodeposition into templates. Anodic Aluminium Oxide AAO membranes were used as templates in this process; the templates were fabricated by anodization method in acidic solutions at a fixed voltage.
This behavior is discussed in terms of broken bonds and degree of surface spin disorder. Alumina matrix ceramic- nickel composites formed by centrifugal slip casting. Full Text Available The paper is focused on the possibility of fabricating the alumina matrix ceramic- nickel composites with gradient concentration of metal particles.
Centrifugal slip casting method was chosen for the composite fabrication. This method allows fabrication of the graded distribution of nickel particles in the hollow cylinder composites. The horizontal rotation axis was applied. The macroscopic as well as SEM observations of the prepared composites confirmed the gradient concentration of Ni particles in the composite materials.
The application of the centrifugal slip casting method allows for the graded distribution of metal particles in the samples. The magnetic properties of metamaterials based on an opal matrix with transition-metal iron, nickel , cobalt particles have been studied. Magnetization curves and magnetic hysteresis loops have been measured and the dependences of real and imaginary parts of magnetization have been determined using the dynamic ac susceptibility measuring procedure.
Structural studies of metamaterials have been performed. The saturation magnetization and coercive force of the studied metamaterials have been found to depend weakly on the temperature. The temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility at a temperature above 30 K can be described adequately by Curie-Weiss law and, at lower temperature, deviates from the law.
The degree of magnetization decreases with increasing Ni plating time, indicating its dependence on the size of the Ni nanoparticles. The stronger magnetization results from the larger surface area of PSi. This dependence is due to the different thickness of the oxide overlayer on the PSi surface formed during the Ni plating process.
The existence of the oxide overlayer also results in a small change in the PL intensity against excitation time. Magnetic beads are often used for serum profiling of peptide and protein biomarkers. In these assays, the bead-bound analytes are eluted from the beads prior to mass spectrometric analysis.
For demonstrating the proof-of-concept, commercial C magnetic beads were used for the extraction of a test compound reserpine from aqueous solution. Experiments were conducted to study focusing abilities, the required laser energies, the influence of a matrix compound, dispensing techniques, solvent choice and the amount of magnetic beads.
Dispensing the magnetic beads onto the micro- magnet sample spots resulted in immediate and strong binding to the magnetic surface. Light microscope images illustrated the homogeneous distribution of beads across the surfaces of the magnets , when the entire sample volume containing the beads was pipetted onto the surface. Subsequent MALDI analysis of the bead-bound analyte demonstrated excellent and reproducible ionization yields.
This feasibility study successfully demonstrated the magnetic focusing abilities for magnetic bead-bound analytes on a novel MALDI plate containing small micro- magnets as sample spots. One of the key advantages of this integrated approach is that no elution steps from magnetic beads were required during analyses compared with conventional bead experiments.
Processing, microstructure and mechanical properties of nickel particles embedded aluminium matrix composite. FSP resulted in uniform dispersion of nickel particles with excellent interfacial bonding with the Al matrix and also lead to significant grain refinement of the matrix. The novelty of the process is that the composite was processed in one step without any pretreatment being given to the constituents and no harmful intermetallic formed.
The novel feature of the composite is that it shows a three fold increase in the yield strength while appreciable amount of ductility is retained. The hardness also improved significantly. The fracture surface showed a ductile failure mode and also revealed the superior bonding between the particles and the matrix.
Electron backscattered diffraction EBSD and transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a dynamically recrystallized equiaxed microstructure. A gradual increase in misorientation from sub-grain to high-angle boundaries is observed from EBSD analysis pointing towards a continuous type dynamic recrystallization mechanism. In vitro evaluation of matrix metalloproteinases as predictive testing for nickel , a model sensitizing agent.
The identification of potential damage due to chemical exposure in the workplace is a major health and regulatory concern. Traditional tests that measure both sensitization and elicitation responses require the use of animals. An alternative to this widespread use of experimental animals could have a crucial impact on risk assessment, especially for the preliminary screening of new molecules.
We developed an in vitro model for the screening of potential toxic compounds. Human keratinocytes HaCat were used as target cells while matrix metalloproteinases MMP were selected as responders because they are key enzymes involved in extracellular matrix ECM degradation in physiological and pathological conditions.
Chemical exposure was performed using nickel sulphate as a positive tester. Molecular activation occurred even at very low nickel concentrations even though no phenotypic changes were observed. MMP-9 accumulation was found in the medium of treated cells with respect to controls. These observations led to the hypothesis that even minimal exposure can accumulate transcriptional activity resulting in long-term clinical signs after contact. Our simple in vitro model can be applied as a useful preliminary complement to the animal studies to screen the effects of new potential toxic compounds.
Magnetic liposomes based on nickel ferrite nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Nickel ferrite nanoparticles with superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature were synthesized using a coprecipitation method. These magnetic nanoparticles were either covered with a lipid bilayer, forming dry magnetic liposomes DMLs , or entrapped in liposomes, originating aqueous magnetoliposomes AMLs. A new and promising method for the synthesis of DMLs is described.
An average donor-acceptor distance of 3 nm was estimated. Assays of the non-specific interactions of magnetoliposomes with biological membranes modeled using giant unilamellar vesicles, GUVs were performed.
Membrane fusion between both aqueous and dry magnetoliposomes and GUVs was confirmed by FRET, which is an important result regarding applications of these systems both as hyperthermia agents and antitumor drug nanocarriers. Magnetic properties of nickel halide hydrates including deuteration effects. DeFotis, G. Magnetic measurements on variously hydrated nickel chlorides and bromides, including deuterated forms, are reported.
For the latter a 2D Heisenberg model augmented by interlayer exchange in a mean-field approximation is applied. Magnetization data to 16 kG as a function of temperature show curvature and hysteresis characteristics quite system dependent. For four materials high field magnetization data to 70 kG at 2. Comparison is made with theoretical relations for spin-1 models. This provides some rationale for the difference in magnetic properties between these. The application and study of an oxide-impregnated nickel-matrix cathode for Beijing proton linac.
A low power consumption oxide-impregnated nickel-matrix cathode used in the Duoplasmatron ion source of the Beijing Proton Linac BPL is presented. Its structure, treatment process of nickel -foam rubber on metal matrix surface and manufacture of dip coating carbonate are briefly introduced. The activation method and experiment results of the cathode are described.
The principal factors which influence the cathode lifetime are discussed. The lifetime of the cathode is up to h while the extracted pulsed beam current is about mA. Mechanical properties of nickel -coated single-walled carbon nanotubes and their embedded gold matrix composites. The effects of nickel coating on the mechanical behaviors of armchair single-walled carbon nanotubes SWCNTs and their embedded gold matrix composites under axial tension are investigated using molecular dynamics MD simulation method.
A comparison is made between the response to Young's modulus of a composite with parallel embedded nanotube and the response of a composite with vertically embedded nanotube. The results show that the uncoated SWCNT can enhance the Young's modulus of composite under the condition of parallel embedment, but such improvement disappears under the condition of vertical embedment because the interaction between SWCNT and gold matrix is too weak for effective load transfer.
A novel rhombohedron-like nickel ferrite nanostructure: Microwave combustion synthesis, structural characterization and magnetic properties. Full Text Available Research on nickel ferrite nanostructures has drawn a great interest because of its inherent chemical, physical and electronic properties. In this study, we have synthesized rhombohedron — like nickel ferrite nanostructure by a rapid microwave assisted combustion method using ethylenediamminetetraacetic acid as a chelating agent.
X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray microanalyser were used to characterize the prepared sample. The magnetic behaviour was analysed by means of field dependent magnetization measurement which indicates that the prepared sample exhibits a soft ferromagnetic nature with saturation magnetization of This technique can be a potential method to synthesize novel nickel ferrite nanostructure with improved magnetic properties.
The effect of nickel electrodeposition on magnetic properties of CoFeSiB amorphous wire. Nickel films were electrodeposited on rapidly quenched amorphous wires from nitrate bath using a constant voltage. It was found that the pH of plating bath had a very strong effect on the formation of nickel films. The magnetic field, H, dependence of the impedance, of nickel plated Co 0. The best elecroplating condition and GMI response were obtained for the plated wire at pH 5 for 30 min plating time.
Tribological properties and lubrication mechanism of in situ graphene- nickel matrix composite impregnated with lubricating oil. A solid-liquid synergetic lubricating system has been designed to develop a novel self-lubricating nickel matrix composite. The graphene- nickel G-Ni matrix composite with porous structure was fabricated by in situ growing graphene in bulk nickel using a powder metallurgy method.
The porous structures of the composite were used to store polyalphaolefin PAO oil for self-lubricating. It is found that the G-Ni matrix composite under oil lubrication condition exhibited superior tribological properties as compared to pure nickel and the composite under dry sliding condition. The prestored oil was released from pores to the sliding surface forming a lubricating oil film during friction process.
This lubricating oil film can protect the worn surface from severe oxidation, and help the formation and transfer of a carbon-based solid tribofilm derived from graphene and lubricating oil. This solid graphene -liquid oil synergistic lubricating mechanism is responsible for the reduction of friction coefficient and improvement of wear resistance of the in situ fabricated G-Ni matrix composite. Nickel ferrite nanoparticles: elaboration in polyol medium via hydrolysis, and magnetic properties.
The resulting nickel ferrite particles exhibit very interesting magnetic properties: they are superparamagnetic at room temperature and have a saturation magnetization close to that of the bulk at low temperature. An in-field Moessbauer study shows clearly that this surprising behaviour is mainly due to: i a departure of the cation distribution from the classical distribution encountered in the bulk material and ii the absence of spin canting for both tetrahedral and octahedral cations.
Rotation of magnetic particles inside the polymer matrix of magnetoactive elastomers with a hard magnetic filler. Stepanov, G. We propose the results of research on the magnetic properties of magnetoactive elastomers containing particles of a hard magnetic filler. According to our understanding, the mechanism of re- magnetizing of the composite is based on two competing processes, being the re- magnetizing of the magnetic filler and mechanical rotation of particles inside of the polymer matrix.
Microstructure and wear resistance of a laser clad TiC reinforced nickel aluminides matrix composite coating. The laser clad coating is metallurgically bonded to the substrate and has a homogenous fine microstructure consisting of the flower-like equiaxed TiC dendrite and the dual phase matrix of NiAl and Ni 3 Al. The intermetallic matrix composite coating exhibits excellent wear resistance under both room- and high-temperature sliding wear test conditions due to the high hardness of TiC coupled with the strong atomic bonds of intermetallic matrix.
Controllable growth and magnetic properties of nickel nanoclusters electrodeposited on the ZnO nanorod template. The ZnO nanorods were used as a template to fabricate nickel nanoclusters by electrodeposition. The ZnO nanorod arrays act as a nano-semiconductor electrode for depositing metallic and magnetic nickel nanoclusters.
The growth sites of Ni nanoclusters could be controlled by adjusting the applied potential. Under On increasing the potential to be more negative the ZnO nanorods were covered by Ni nanoclusters. The magnetic properties of the electrodeposited Ni nanoclusters also evolved with the applied potentials. Magnetic behavior of nickel ferrite nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation route.
The size of the particles was observed to be increasing linearly with increasing annealing temperature of the sample. Typical blocking effects were observed below K for all the prepared samples. The superparamagnetic blocking temperature was found to be continuously increasing with increasing particle sizes that has been attributed to the increased effective anisotropy of the nanoparticles.
The saturation moment of all the samples was found much below the bulk value of nickel ferrite that has been attributed to the disordered surface spins of these nanoparticles. Magnetic properties of 2D nickel nanostrips: structure dependent magnetism and Stoner criterion. We have investigated different geometries of two-dimensional 2D infinite length Ni nanowires of increasing width using spin density functional theory calculations.
Our simulations demonstrate that the parallelogram motif is the most stable and structures that incorporate the parallelogram motif are more stable as compared to rectangular structures. The wires are conducting and the conductance channels increase with increasing width. The wires have a non-linear behavior in the ballistic anisotropic magnetoresistance ratios BAMR with respect to the magnetization directions.
All 2D nanowires as well as Ni 1 1 1 and Ni 1 0 0 monolayer investigated are ferromagnetic under the Stoner criterion and exhibit enhanced magnetic moments as compared to bulk Ni and the respective Ni monolayers. The easy axis for all nickel nanowires under investigation is observed to be along the wire axis. The double rectangular nanowire exhibits a magnetic anomaly with a smaller magnetic moment when compared to Ni 1 0 0 monolayer and is the only structure with an easy axis perpendicular to the wire axis.
The Stoner parameter which has been known to be structure independent in bulk and surfaces is found to vary with the structure and the width of the nanowires. The less stable rectangular and rhombus shaped nanowires have a higher ferromagnetic strength than parallelogram shaped nanowires. Anjana, V. X-ray studies proves that the particles are possessing single phase spinel structure with an average particle size calculated using Debye Scherer formula.
Magnetic measurements reveal that saturation magnetization value Ms decreases while magnetic coercivity Hc increases upon doping. Magnetic properties of mosaic nanocomposites composed of nickel and cobalt nanowires. Ecuador , Santiago Chile ; Altbir, D. Mosaic nanocomposites composed of nickel and cobalt nanowires arranged in different configurations were investigated using Monte Carlo simulations and a simple model that considers single-domain structures including length corrections due to the shape anisotropy.
Our results showed that for an ordered array both the coercivity and the remanence decrease linearly as a function of the concentration of nickel nanowires. In principle the second material could be other soft magnetic material, but could also be a nonmagnetic material or could even be a situation in which some of the pore arrays were not filled by electrodeposition.
Therefore, our results allow us to predict the behavior of magnetic mosaic nanocomposites that are promising candidates for functional electrodes, sensors, and model catalysts. Symmetries of the 2D magnetic particle imaging system matrix. In magnetic particle imaging MPI , the relation between the particle distribution and the measurement signal can be described by a linear system of equations. For 1D imaging, it can be shown that the system matrix can be expressed as a product of a convolution matrix and a Chebyshev transformation matrix.
For multidimensional imaging, the structure of the MPI system matrix is not yet fully explored as the sampling trajectory complicates the physical model. It has been experimentally found that the MPI system matrix rows have symmetries and look similar to the tensor products of Chebyshev polynomials. In this work we will mathematically prove that the 2D MPI system matrix has symmetries that can be used for matrix compression.
Magnetic vortex state and multi-domain pattern in electrodeposited hemispherical nanogranular nickel films. Magnetic states of nickel nanogranular films were studied in two distinct structures of individual and agglomerated granules electrodeposited on n-type Si 1 1 1 surface from a modified Watts bath at a low pH of 2. Magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations revealed three-dimensional out-of-plane magnetic vortex states in stand-alone hemispherical granules and their arrays, and multi-domain patterns in large agglomerates and integrated films.
Once the granules coalesce into small chains or clusters, the coercivity values increased due to the reduction of inter-granular spacing and strengthening of the magnetostatic interaction. Further growth leads to the formation of a continuous granulated film which strongly affected the coercivity and remanence.
This was characterized by the domain wall nucleation and propagation leading to a stripe domain pattern. Magnetoresistance measurements as a function of external magnetic field are indicative of anisotropic magnetoresistance AMR for the continuous films electrodeposited on Si substrate. Theoretical study of magnetic layers of nickel on copper; dead or alive? We studied the persistence of magnetism in ultrathin nickel films on copper.
Layer-dependent magnetic moments in Ni films on the , and surfaces of Cu have been calculated using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's function method. Films of two and more layers of Ni are always ferromagnetic, with the magnetic moment enhanced in the surface layer but strongly reduced in the interface layer. Due to the short screening length, both the effect of the interface and that of the surface are confined to only a few atomic layers.
Magnetically dead layers at sp-impurity-decorated grain boundaries and surfaces in nickel. Megha, A. The polarization of the light that is scattered by the coronal ions is influenced by the anisotropic illumination from the photosphere and the magnetic field structuring in the solar corona. The properties of the coronal magnetic fields can be well studied by understanding the polarization properties of coronal forbidden emission lines that arise from magnetic dipole M 1 transitions in the highly ionized atoms that are present in the corona.
We present the classical scattering theory of the forbidden lines for a more general case of arbitrary-strength magnetic fields. We derive the scattering matrix for M 1 transitions using the classical magnetic dipole model of Casini and Lin and applying the scattering matrix approach of Stenflo. We consider a two-level atom model and neglect collisional effects. The scattering matrix so derived is used to study the Stokes profiles formed in coronal conditions in those regions where the radiative excitations dominate collisional excitations.
To this end, we take into account the integration over a cone of an unpolarized radiation from the solar disk incident on the scattering atoms. Furthermore, we also integrate along the line of sight to calculate the emerging polarized line profiles. We consider radial and dipole magnetic field configurations and spherically symmetric density distributions. We also discuss the nature of the scattering matrix for M 1 transitions and compare it with that for the electric dipole E 1 transitions.
Electroplating and characterization of cobalt- nickel -iron and nickel -iron for magnetic microsystems applications. CoNiFe is a very promising material for magnetic microsystems due to the possibility of achieving a high saturation flux density B-s and a low coercivity H-c. A new bath formulation has The magnetic properties have been determined using a new simple measurement setup that allows for wafer level characterization. The results have been validated Effect of weak magnetic field on the grain size of electrodeposited nickel.
Effect of weak magnetic field on the electro-deposition of nickel onto copper electrode has been investigated. The working conditions were optimized through adjustment of cathodic current density CCD , deposition time, bath temperature and pH of the medium. The same conditions were maintained for the electrodeposition while applying magnetic field of 0.
The morphological features of the Ni-deposits on copper cathode were compared for the two cases. The applied magnetic field not only enhanced the amount of nickel deposition but also improved the quality of the deposit. Surface morphology of the electro-deposited nickel has been monitored using scanning electron microscopy SEM ; the preliminary investigation has shown that the grain size decreased with the applied magnetic field case.
One possible explanation to this behavior is the convection flow of cations close to the electrode surface induced by the Lorentz force which also influences the ion-migration. Magnetic characterization of the nickel layer protecting the copper wires in harsh applications.
For both cases, a diffusion barrier must protect the copper wire against oxidation. The usual solution consists of adding a nickel layer that yields an excellent chemical protection. Unfortunately, the nickel has ferromagnetic properties that change a lot the skin effect in the HT wire at high frequencies. For many applications such as aeronautics, electrical machines are always associated with PWM inverters for their control.
The windings must resist to high voltage short spikes caused by the fast fronted pulses imposed by the feeding inverter. A good knowledge of the non-linear magnetic characteristics of this nickel layer is helpful for designing reliable HT inorganic coils. Facile and rapid synthesis of nickel nanowires and their magnetic properties. The present work reports a facile and rapid microwave-assisted route to synthesize nickel nanowires with a necklace-like morphology and lengths up to several hundreds of microns.
Nickel nanostructures with various morphologies including spheres, chains and irregular particles with porous surfaces can also be obtained by adjusting reaction parameters. Polyvinylpyrrolidone PVP is found to be vital for the formation of the one-dimensional chains and a high concentration of PVP smoothes their surfaces to result in the appearance of wires.
This rapid one-pot procedure combines the formation of nanoparticles, their oriented assembly into chains, and the subsequent shaping of wires. The Ni nanostructures show variable magnetic properties. The prepared nickel wires have a high mechanical stability and exhibit much higher coercivity than bulk nickel , Ni nanoparticles and their aggregations, which promise potential applications in micromechanical sensors, memory devices and other fields.
This transition is connected to a lattice distortion, which can be described as breathing mode of the oxygen octahedra surrounding the Ni cations. Our results show a strong dependency of the breathing mode amplitude on the magnetic order, with a much larger breathing mode obtained for the AFM state compared to the ferromagnetic case. Magnetic properties of Co nanoparticles in zirconia matrix. Granular films composed of nanometric Co particles embedded in an insulating ZrO 2 matrix were prepared by pulsed laser deposition in a wide range of Co volume concentrations 0.
The mean particles size and width of the distribution determined by fitting the low-field magnetic susceptibility and magnetization curves in the paramagnetic regime to a distribution of Langevin functions are in agreement with the parameters extracted from direct TEM observations. Ferromagnetic correlations between Co particles are evident in the field-cooled state when increasing Co concentration.
The effective anisotropy constant estimated from magnetic measurements is about two orders of magnitude larger than the bulk value, and decreases as particle size increases. Electron paramagnetic resonance response and magnetic interactions in ordered solid solutions of lithium nickel oxides. Azzoni, C. EPR data of ordered solid solutions of lithium nickel oxides are reported as a function of the lithium content. The possible origin of the interactions responsible for the magnetic ordering and some features of the transport properties are also discussed.
Structural and magnetic properties of nickel antimony ferrospinels. Ivanov, S. Anil; Mathieu, R. Spinel-type compounds of Fe—Ni—Sb—O system were synthesized as polycrystalline powders. The samples crystallize in the cubic system, space group Fd — 3 m. The cation distribution and the temperature dependence of the lattice parameter a and the oxygen positional parameter u were obtained. A chemical formula close to Fe0. The magnetic unit cell is the same as the crystallographic one, having identical symmetry relations.
The results indicate that the compounds have a collinear ferrimagnetic structure with antiferromagnetic coupling between the tetrahedral A and octahedral B sites. Uniquely, the temperature dependence of the net magnetization of this rare earth free ferrimagnet exhibits a compensation point. The simulations on Nickel target preparation and separation of Ni II -Cu II matrix has been carried out as a preliminary study for production of medical radioisotope Cu based on nuclear reaction of "6"4Ni p,n "6"4Cu.
The nickel target preparation was performed by means of electroplating method using acidic solution of nickel chloride - boric acid mixture and basic solution of nickel sulphate - nickel chloride mixture on a silver - surfaced-target holder.
The simulated solution of Ni II - Cu II matrix was considered as the solution of post-proton-irradiated nickel target containing both irradiated nickel and radioactive copper, but in the presented work the proton irradiation of nickel target was omitted, while the radioactive copper was originally obtained from neutron irradiation of CuO target. It was found that the electroplating result from the acidic solution was more satisfied than that from the basic solution.
Structure and magnetic properties of nickel nanoparticles preparedby selective leaching. Nanoparticles of nickel oxide: growth and organization on zinc-substituted anionic clay matrix by one-pot route at room temperature. It is based on the growth and organization of nanoparticles of nickel oxide which occur during the structural reconstruction of the layered structure of the anionic clay in NiSO 4 aqueous solution.
No organic compounds are used during the fabrication. Results show that the nickel -clay nanoarchitecture consists of small nanoparticles of nickel oxide average size 7 nm deposited on the larger nanoparticles average size 90 nm of zinc-substituted clay. The optical properties of the new nickel -zinc formulation are studied by UV-Vis. It is based on the growth and organization of nanoparticles of nickel oxide which occur during the structural reconstruction of the layered structure of the anionic clay in NiSO4 aqueous solution.
A chemical formula close to Fe 0. Improvement of the corrosion resistance on Nd-Fe-B magnet with nickel plating. Al ion-plating and without coating were also exposed to the corrosion test. After the specified periods of corrosion test, the permanent flux loss of the re- magnetized sample was measured.
The changes in the appearance were also observed. Synthesis and magnetic characterization of nickel ferrite nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation route. Magnetic nanoparticles of nickel ferrite NiFe 2O 4 have been synthesized by co-precipitation route using stable ferric and nickel salts with sodium hydroxide as the precipitating agent and oleic acid as the surfactant.
X-ray diffraction XRD and transmission electron microscope TEM analyses confirmed the formation of single-phase nickel ferrite nanoparticles in the range nm depending upon the annealing temperature of the samples during the synthesis. The superparamagnetic blocking temperature T B was found to be increasing with increasing particle size that has been attributed to the increased effective anisotropy energy of the nanoparticles. Schramm, Harry F. All NASA parts have identification, usually expressed in terms of part number, serial number, and the like.
In most cases, this identification is permanently marked directly on the part for tracking throughout its life cycle. NASA has developed a method for reading the matrix symbol through up to 15 mils 25 m of paint 5 or 6 layers. This method of part identification involves coating selected patches on the objects with magnetic materials in matrix symbol patterns and reading the patterns by use of magneto-optical imaging equipment.
Structural and magnetic studies of Cr doped nickel ferrite thin films. Panwar, Kalpana; Heda, N. We have studied the structural and magnetic properties of Cr doped nickel ferrite thin films deposited on Si and Si using pulsed laser deposition technique. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that films on both substrates have single phase cubic spinel structure. However, the film grown on Si shows better crystalline behavior. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggests that films on both substrates have mixed spinel structure.
These films show magnetic hysteresis behavior and magnetization value of film on Si is larger than that on Si It turns out that structural and magnetic properties of these two films are correlated. Nickel --chromium strain gages for cryogenic stress analysis of superconducting structures in high magnetic fields.
Evaluation and calibration measurements were performed on commercial nickel -chromium metal-foil strain gages in a high- magnetic -field 12 T , liquid-helium 4. The purpose was to fully characterize strain gages for use at cryogenic temperatures in high magnetic fields. As a result, a unique calibration curve was defined for magnetoresistance strain errors that is independent of strain level and field direction to 12 T at 4. A current strain-gage application is the measurement of superconductor mechanical properties.
These gages will soon be used in the stress analysis of superconducting fusion magnets during cooldown from ambient temperatures and during operation at 4. Chitosan-coated nickel -ferrite nanoparticles as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. We report evidence for the possible application of chitosan-coated nickel -ferrite NiFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles as both T 1 and T 2 contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging MRI. The coating of nickel -ferrite nanoparticles with chitosan was performed simultaneously with the synthesis of the nickel -ferrite nanoparticles by a chemical co-precipitation method.
The coated nanoparticles were cylindrical in shape with an average length of 17 nm and an average width of 4. The bonding of chitosan onto the ferrite nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The T 1 and T 2 relaxivities were 0. This demonstrated that chitosan-coated nickel -ferrite nanoparticles are suitable as both T 1 and T 2 contrast agents in MRI.
We note that the applicability of our nanoparticles as both T 1 and T 2 contrast agents is due to their cylindrical shape, which gives rise to both inner and outer sphere processes of nanoparticles. Magnetic and electrical properties of oxygen stabilized nickel nanofibers prepared by the borohydride reduction method. Srinivas, V. Fine nickel fibers have been synthesized by chemical reduction of nickel ions in aqueous medium with sodium borohydride. The thermal stability and relevant properties of these fibers, as-prepared as well as air-annealed, have been investigated by structural, magnetic and electrical measurements.
As-prepared samples appear to have a novel crystal structure due to the presence of interstitial oxygen. Upon annealing in air, the fcc-Ni phase emerges out initially and develops into a nanocomposite subsequently by retaining its fiber-like structure in nano phase.
The as-prepared sample is observed to be weakly magnetic at room temperature, but attains surprisingly high magnetization values at low temperatures. This is attributed to the modified spin structure, presumably due to the presence of interstitial oxygen in the lattice. Development of a weakly ferromagnetic and electrically conducting phase upon annealing in air is attributed to the formation of the fcc-Ni phase.
The structural phase transformations corroborate well with magnetic and electrical measurements. Full Text Available Nickel -based magnetic activated carbon was synthesized from coconut shell activated carbon by electroless plating with palladium-free activation. The effect of plating solution volume on metallic ratio and adsorption capacity were evaluated. The effect of metallic ratio on specific area, pore volume, and magnetic properties were investigated.
The morphologies of activated carbon before and after plating were observed by SEM, and the composition of the layer was analyzed by EDS analysis. The results showed that the metallic ratio was increased with the increase of the plating solution volume.
The magnetic activated carbon showed high adsorption capacity for methylene blue and a high iodine number. Those values reached And the layer was more compact and continuous when the metallic ratio reached In the layer, there was about 97 wt. At the same time, magnetism was enhanced, making the product suitable for some special applications. Nickel -base alloy overlay weld with improved ultrasonic flaw detection by magnetic stirring welding.
Ultrasonic flaw detection is more difficult in Nickel -base alloy welds containing dendrites owing to the decrease ultrasonic transmissibility they cause. The present paper discusses application of magnetic stirring welding as a means for reducing dendrite growth with consequent improvement in ultrasonic transmissibility. Single pass and multi-pass welding tests were conducted to determine optimal welding conditions.
By PT and macro observation subsequent to welding was carried out, optimal operation conditions were clarified. Overlay welding tests and UT clearly indicated ultrasonic beam transmissibility in overlay welds to be improved and detection capacity to be greater through application of magnetic stirring welding. Optimal operation conditions were determined based on examination of temper bead effects in the heat affected zone of low alloy steel by application of magnetic stirring welding to the butt welded joints between low alloy and stainless steel.
Hardness in this zone of low alloy steel after the fourth layer was less than HV. Comparison of low cycle fatigue of ductile cast irons with different matrix alloyed with nickel. Praha, Effect of experimental factors on magnetic properties of nickel nanoparticles produced by chemical reduction method using a statistical design. But addition of more ethanol to precursor solvent leads to the formation of larger particles with broader size distribution and weak ferromagnetic or super-paramagnetic behavior.
Magnetic properties of nickel nanowires decorated with cobalt nanoparticles fabricated by two step electrochemical deposition technique. Maaz, K. We demonstrate fabrication and magnetic characterization of novel nanostructures composed of Ni nanowires decorated with Co nanoparticles by two step etching and electrochemical deposition in polycarbonate template.
Structural analysis confirmed the formation of nickel nanowires with diameter of 62 nm which are surrounded by cobalt nanoparticles of about 15 nm in diameter. By electron microscopy analyses it is evident that the nanoparticles are distributed on the surface of the nanowires. Analysis of magnetization data indicates that ferromagnetic Ni nanowires exhibit an easy axis of magnetization parallel to the wire long-axis while the angular dependence of coercivity indicates that magnetization reversal occurs through the curling process in these nanowires.
Full Text Available The morphologies of nickel and copper deposits obtained without applied magnetic fields, and with both parallel and perpendicular applied magnetic fields were examined by the scanning electron microscopy SEM technique. The morphologies of the nickel and copper deposits obtained under parallelly oriented magnetic fields were similar to those obtained at some lower cathodic potentials without an applied magnetic field. The magnetic field with a perpendicular orientation to the electrode surface increased the dispersity of the nickel and copper deposits.
Nickel and copper deposits obtained under this orientation of the magnetic field were similar to those obtained at some higher cathodic potentials without an applied magnetic field. Magnetic and elastic anisotropy in magnetorheological elastomers using nickel -based nanoparticles and nanochains.
Landa, Romina A. Nickel Ni based nanoparticles and nanochains were incorporated as fillers in polydimethylsiloxane PDMS elastomers and then these mixtures were thermally cured in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. In this way, macroscopically structured-anisotropic PDMS-Ni based magnetorheological composites were obtained with the formation of pseudo-chains-like structures referred as needles oriented in the direction of the applied magnetic field when curing.
The size distribution was obtained by fitting Small Angle X-ray Scattering SAXS experiments with a polydisperse hard spheres model and a Schulz-Zimm distribution, obtaining a size distribution centered at The magnetic properties of Ni-based nanoparticles and nanochains at room temperature are compared and discussed in terms of surface and size effects. Both Ni-based nanoparticles and nanochains were used as fillers for obtaining the PDMS structured magnetorheological composites, observing the presence of oriented needles.
The results indicate that even at low loadings it is. Preparation and magnetic properties of polymer magnetic composites based on acrylate resin filled with nickel plating graphite nanosheets. Zhang Yi, E-mail: zhangyilove yahoo. Scattering matrix for magnetic potentials with Coulomb decay at infinity. Magnetism of iron and nickel from rotationally invariant Hirsch-Fye quantum Monte Carlo calculations. We present a rotationally invariant Hirsch-Fye quantum Monte Carlo algorithm in which the spin rotational invariance of Hund's exchange is approximated by averaging over all possible directions of the spin quantization axis.
We employ this technique to perform benchmark calculations for the two- and three-band Hubbard models on the infinite-dimensional Bethe lattice. Our results agree quantitatively well with those obtained using the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method with rotationally invariant Coulomb interaction. The obtained Curie temperatures agree well with experiment. Our results indicate that the magnetic transition temperature is significantly overestimated by using the density-density type of Coulomb interaction.
Effect of natural and magnetic convections on the structure of electrodeposited zinc- nickel alloy. Levesque, A. The effects of a magnetic field applied in a direction parallel or perpendicular to the cathode substrate plane, during electrodeposition process of Zn-Ni alloy have been investigated by means of chronoamperometric measurements, X-ray diffraction and EDX analysis.
There is no saturation of this effect with amplitude of B up to 8 T. A study of different geometric configurations of the cathode, which induce more or less natural convection, consolidates these results. The structural modifications of Zn-Ni alloy electrodeposits are thus probably due to a magnetohydrodynamic effect. Magnetism of iron, cobalt and nickel clusters studied in molecular beams. The magnetic properties of iron, cobalt and nickel clusters in a molecular beam have been studied in a magnetic Stern-Gerlach deflection experiment.
The molecular beam apparatus consists of a laser vaporization cluster source with high intensity and stability and a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer for the deflection measurements. Several novel experimental features have been developed in this work, like a nozzle which can be heated up to K and a chopper to measure the dwell times of the clusters in the source and their corresponding velocities.
These new developments have allowed the measurement and the control of the temperature of the free clusters. The Stern-Gerlach deflection experiments have been performed on Fe, Co and Ni clusters in the mass range from 20 to atoms. All clusters show single-sided deflection toward increasing field. This observation indicates that a spin relaxation process occurs within the isolated clusters.
The participation of both the cluster rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom to the spin relaxation has been experimentally demonstrated. The cluster magnetization has been determined as a function of applied magnetic field B and as a function of dwell times of the clusters in the source before the supersonic expansion into vacuum. For lower rotational speeds, reduced values of the magnetization have been observed.
The magnetic moments of the superparamagnetic Fe, Co and Ni clusters have been measured as a a function of cluster size N at low temperature and b as a function of cluster temperature T for various size ranges. Preparation of nickel -coated titanium carbide particulates and their use in the production of reinforced iron matrix composites. The microstructure and phase composition of the Ni-coated powders and the composites were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.
The results showed that the TiC particles were distributed uniformly in the matrix and were free of segregation or coarsening. Compared to the TiC particles without Ni coating, the reinforced iron-based composites containing the Ni-coated particles showed higher relative densities and better mechanical properties. The density, hardness, tensile strength, and elongation were enhanced to We propose that the nickel coatings on the particulates had a beneficial effect on the microstructure and properties of the reinforced iron-based composites is due to promotion of neck formation and growth between TiC and iron powders during sintering, which enhanced the density of the sintered compact and the bonding strength between the TiC particles and the iron matrix.
Magnetic nickel ferrite nanoparticles as highly durable catalysts for catalytic transfer hydrogenation of bio-based aldehydes. Magnetism of hexagonal close-packed nickel calculated by full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. The energy dependent on volume of hexagonal close-packed hcp nickel with different magnetism is calculated by full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. Based on the calculation ferromagnetic state is found to be the most stable state.
The magnetic moment of hcp Ni is calculated and compared to those calculated by different pseudo-potential methods. Furthermore, it is also compared to that of face-centered cubic fcc one with the reason discussed. We present a comprehensive view on this phenomenon over the broad family of samples with different average particles dimension and dielectric matrix content.
The results reveal the pure relaxation nature of magnetization processes without observation of spin resonance. The smaller particles and higher amount of insulating resin result in the prevalence of rotations over domain wall movement. The findings are elucidated in terms of demagnetizing effects rising from the heterogeneity of composite materials.
Witthoeft, M. We present R- matrix calculations of photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections across the K edge of the Li-like to Ca-like ions stages of Ni. Level-resolved, Breit-Pauli calculations were performed for the Li-like to Na-like stages. Term-resolved calculations, which include the mass-velocity and Darwin relativistic corrections, were performed for the Mg-like to Ca-like ion stages. The R- matrix calculations include the effects of radiative and Auger dampings by means of an optical potential.
The damping processes affect the absorption resonances converging to the K thresholds causing them to display symmetric profiles of constant width that smear the otherwise sharp edge at the K-shell photoionization threshold. These data are important for the modeling of features found in photoionized plasmas. We present R- matrix calculations of photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections across the K edge of the Li-like to Ca-like ion stages of Ni.
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to apply coarse recycled hardmetal particles in combination with Ni-based matrix to produce wear resistant metal matrix composite MMC thick coatings using plasma transferred arc hardfacing PTA technology.
Assignment of hardmetal waste as initial material can significantly decrease the production costs and improve the mechanical properties of coatings and, consequently, increase their wear resistance. Micro-mechanical properties, including hardness and elastic modulus of features, were measured by nanoindentation.
Furthermore, behaviour of materials subjected to abrasive and impact conditions was studied. Results show the recycled powder provides hardfacings of high quality which can be successfully used in the fabrication of wear resistant MMC coatings by PTA-technology. Effect of vanadium doping on structural and magnetic properties of defective nano- nickel ferrite. Nano- nickel ferrites defected by vanadium doping NiV x Fe Rietveld analysis revealed a nonmonotonic change in lattice parameter, oxygen parameter and magnetization upon doping with vanadium.
Cation distributions suggested from either Rietveld analysis or from experimental magnetic moments were in a good agreement. Preparation and magnetic properties of nano size nickel ferrite particles using hydrothermal method. Full Text Available Abstract Background Nickel ferrite, a kind of soft magnetic materials is one of the most attracting class of materials due to its interesting and important properties and has many technical applications, such as in catalysis, sensors and so on.
In this paper the synthesis of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles by the hydrothermal method is reported and the inhibition of surfactant Glycerol or Sodium dodecyl sulfate on the particles growth is investigated. Methods For investigation of the inhibition effect of surfactant on NiFe2O4 particles growth, the samples were prepared in presence of Glycerol and Sodium dodecyl sulfate. The average particle size was determined from the Scherrer's equation and TEM micrographs and found to be in the range of nm that decreased up to nm in presence of surfactant.
The FT-IR results show two absorption bands near to and cm-1 for the tetrahedral and octahedral sites respectively. Furthermore, the saturated magnetization and coercivity of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were in the range of As well as, the nanoparticles exhibited a superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. Conclusions Nanosized nickel ferrite particles were synthesized with and without surfactant assisted hydrothermal methods.
The results show that with increasing of temperature, the crystallinity of nanoparticles is increased. In the presence of surfactants, the crystallinity of. Observation of magnetically anisotropic defects during stage I recovery in nickel after low-temperature electron irradiation. The measurement of defect-induced changes of magnetic anisotropy in a nickel single crystal after low-temperature electron irradiation was undertaken.
A dynamic measuring method was used after reorienting a certain fraction of the radiation-induced defects in an external magnetic field of 5 kOe. In the temperature range of recovery stage I sub C,D,E 45 to 60 k the crystallographic direction dependence of defect-induced anisotropy could be determined.
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