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In fact, defying the United States with an act of severe sedition by a traitor is the only crime spelled out in the document. The Constitution also requires the removal of the president, vice president, and all of their offices if convicted of treason or other acts of sedition that constitute "high crimes and misdemeanors. The first and most high-profile case involving allegations of treason in the United States included former Vice President Aaron Burr , a colorful character in American history primarily known for his slaying of Alexander Hamilton in a duel.
Burr was accused of conspiring to create a new independent nation by convincing the U. Burr's trial on charges of treason in was lengthy and presided over by Chief Justice John Marshall. It ended in acquittal because there wasn't enough solid evidence of Burr's sedition.
She was later pardoned by President Gerald Ford despite her acts of sedition. Another prominent treason conviction was that of Axis Sally, who real name was Mildred E. The American-born radio broadcaster was found guilty of broadcasting propaganda in support of the Nazis during World War II.
The United States government has not filed charges of treason since the end of that war. Though there there haven't been any official charges of treason in modern history, there have been plenty of accusations of such anti-American sedition leveled by politicians. For example, actress Jane Fonda's trip to Hanoi during the Vietnam War sparked outrage among many Americans, particularly when it was reported that she had sharply criticized U. Neither Fonda nor Snowden were ever charged with treason, however.
Share Flipboard Email. Issues The U. Legal System U. Foreign Policy U. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open court. The Cramer Case. In the first of these, Cramer v.
The Haupt Case. United States. In the light of this mission and his instructions, they were more than casually useful; they were aids in steps essential to his design for treason. And more important, it held that the constitutional requirement of two witnesses to the same overt act or confession in open court does not operate to exclude confessions or admissions made out of court, where a legal basis for the conviction has been laid by the testimony of two witnesses of which such confessions or admissions are merely corroborative.
This relaxation of restrictions surrounding the definition of treason evoked obvious satisfaction from Justice Douglas, who saw in Haupt a vindication of his position in Cramer. His concurring opinion contains what may be called a restatement of the law of treason and merits quotation at length:.
Intent need not be proved by two witnesses but may be inferred from all the circumstances surrounding the overt act. But if two witnesses are not required to prove treasonable intent, two witnesses need not be required to show the treasonable character of the overt act.
For proof of treasonable intent in the doing of the overt act necessarily involves proof that the accused committed the overt act with the knowledge or understanding of its treasonable character. That requirement is undeniably met in the present case, as it was in the case of Cramer.
The present decision is truer to the constitutional definition of treason when it forsakes that test and holds that an act, quite innocent on its face, does not need two witnesses to be transformed into a incriminating one. The Kawakita Case. United States was decided on June 2, While a minor, he took the oath of allegiance to the United States; went to Japan for a visit on an American passport; and was prevented by the outbreak of war from returning to this country.
During the war, he reached his majority in Japan; changed his registration from American to Japanese, showed sympathy with Japan and hostility to the United States; served as a civilian employee of a private corporation producing war materials for Japan; and brutally abused American prisoners of war who were forced to work there. An American citizen, it continued, owes allegiance to the United States wherever he may reside, and dual nationality does not alter the situation.
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